Adobe Illustrator CC Classroom in a Book 2015 release (2016)
12. Exploring Creative Uses of Effects and Graphic Styles
In this lesson, you’ll learn how to do the following:
• Work with the Appearance panel.
• Edit and apply appearance attributes.
• Copy, disable and enable, and remove appearance attributes.
• Reorder appearance attributes.
• Apply and edit an effect.
• Apply a variety of effects.
• Save and apply an appearance as a graphic style.
• Apply a graphic style to a layer.
• Scale strokes and effects.
This lesson takes approximately 60 minutes to complete.
Download the project files for this lesson from the Lesson & Update Files tab on your Account page at www.peachpit.com and store them on your computer in a convenient location, as described in the “Getting Started” section of this book.
Your Account page is also where you’ll find any updates to the chapters or to the lesson files. Look on the Lesson & Update Files tab to access the most current content.
You can change the look of an object without changing its structure simply by applying attributes, such as fills, strokes, and effects, from the Appearance panel. And because the effects themselves are live, they can be modified or removed at any time. This allows you to save the appearance attributes as graphic styles and apply them to another object.
In this lesson, you’ll change the appearance of artwork using the Appearance panel, various effects, and graphic styles. Before you begin, you’ll need to restore the default preferences for Adobe Illustrator. Then you’ll open a file containing the finished artwork to see what you’ll create.
1. To ensure that the tools and panels function exactly as described in this lesson, delete or deactivate (by renaming) the Adobe Illustrator CC preferences file. See “Restoring default preferences” in the “Getting Started” section at the beginning of the book.
If you have not already downloaded the project files for this lesson to your computer from your Account page, make sure to do so now. See “Getting Started” at the beginning of the book.
2. Start Adobe Illustrator CC.
3. Choose File > Open, and open the L12_end.ai file in the Lessons > Lesson12 folder on your hard disk.
This file displays a completed illustration of a flyer for a music event.
4. In the Missing Fonts dialog box that most likely will appear, click Sync Fonts to sync all of the missing fonts from the FranklinGothicURW-Hea family to your computer. After it is synced and you see the message stating that there are no more missing fonts, click Close.
You will need an Internet connection to sync the font.
If you can’t get the fonts to sync, you can go to the Creative Cloud desktop application and choose Assets > Fonts to see what the issue may be (refer to the section “Changing font family and font style” in Lesson 8, “Adding Type to a Poster,” for more information on how to resolve it).
You can also just click Close in the Missing Fonts dialog box and ignore the missing fonts as you proceed. A third method is to click the Find Fonts button in the Missing Fonts dialog box and replace the fonts with a local font on your machine. You can also go to Help (Help > Illustrator Help) and search for “Find missing fonts.”
5. Choose View > Zoom Out to make the finished artwork smaller. Adjust the window size, and leave it on your screen as you work. (Use the Hand tool  to move the artwork where you want it in the window.) If you don’t want to leave the image open, choose File > Close.
To begin working, you’ll open an existing art file.
6. Choose File > Open. If a panel appears, click Open in the panel. You could also choose File > Open again. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the Lessons > Lesson12 folder and select the L12_start.ai file on your hard disk. Click Open to open the file.
For more help on resolving the missing font, refer to step 4.
The L12_start.ai file uses the same FranklinGothicURW-Hea font as the L12_end.ai file. If you synced the font once, you don’t need to do it again. If you didn’t open the L12_end.ai file, then the Missing Fonts dialog box will most likely will appear for this step. Click Sync Fonts to sync all of the missing fonts from the FranklinGothicURW-Hea family to your computer. After it is synced and you see the message stating that there are no more missing fonts, click Close.
7. Choose File > Save As, name the file JazzFestival.ai, and select the Lesson12 folder. Leave the Format option set to Adobe Illustrator (ai) (Mac OS) or the Save As Type option set to Adobe Illustrator (*.AI) (Windows), and then click Save.
8. In the Illustrator Options dialog box, leave the Illustrator options at their default settings, and then click OK.
9. Choose Reset Essentials from the workspace switcher in the Application bar to reset the workspace.
If you don’t see Reset Essentials in the workspace switcher menu, choose Window > Workspace > Essentials before choosing Window > Workspace > Reset Essentials.
10. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window.
Using the Appearance panel
An appearance attribute is an aesthetic property—such as a fill, stroke, transparency, or effect—that affects the look of an object but does not affect its basic structure. Up to this point, you’ve been changing appearance attributes in the Control panel, Swatches panel, and more. These attributes and more can also be found in the Appearance panel for selected artwork. In this lesson, you’ll focus on using the Appearance panel to apply and edit appearance attributes.
1. Choose Window > Appearance to see the Appearance panel.
2. Select the Selection tool (), and click to select the largest of the shapes that make up the trumpet (see the arrow in the next figure).
Depending on your operating system, the selection color of objects (the bounding box) may be different colors, and that’s okay.
The Appearance panel shows what the object is (a Path) and the appearance attributes applied to it (Stroke, Fill, Drop Shadow effect, and Opacity).
The different options available in the Appearance panel are described here:
A. Selected object and thumbnail
B. Attribute row
C. Visibility column
D. Link to options
E. Add New Stroke
F. Add New Fill
G. Add New Effect
H. Clear Appearance
I. Duplicate Selected Item
J. Delete Selected Item
K. Indicates an effect applied
The Appearance panel (Window > Appearance) can be used to view and adjust the appearance attributes for a selected object, group, or layer. Fills and strokes are listed in stacking order; top to bottom in the panel correlates to front to back in the artwork. Effects applied to artwork are listed from top to bottom in the order in which they are applied to the artwork. An advantage of using appearance attributes is that they can be changed or removed at any time without affecting the underlying artwork or any other attributes applied to the object in the Appearance panel.
Editing appearance attributes
You’ll start by changing the basic appearance of artwork using the Appearance panel.
1. With the trumpet shape still selected (see steps in previous section), choose Select > Same > Fill Color to select the rest of the black trumpet shapes.
Notice that the same appearance properties are listed in the Appearance panel. If you were to select multiple objects that had different fills, for instance, the Appearance panel would show “Mixed Appearance,” indicating that the selected artwork has at least one appearance attribute that is different.
2. In the Appearance panel, click the black Fill color box in the Fill attribute row until the Swatches panel appears. Select the swatch named “Trumpet” to apply it to the Fill. Press the Escape key to hide the Swatches panel.
You may need to click the Fill box more than once to open the Swatches panel. The first click on the Fill box selects the Fill row in the panel, and the next click shows the Swatches panel.
You will find that you can change appearance attributes, like Fill color, in the Appearance panel or elsewhere in the workspace.
3. Click the words “0.5 pt” in the Stroke row to show the Stroke Weight option. Change the Stroke weight to 0 to remove it.
4. Click the underlined word “Stroke” to reveal the Stroke panel.
Clicking underlined words in the Appearance panel, as in the Control panel, shows more formatting options—usually a panel such as the Swatches or Stroke panel. Appearance attributes, such as Fill or Stroke, can have other options, such as Opacity or an effect applied to only that attribute. These additional options are listed as a subset under the attribute row and can be shown or hidden by clicking the disclosure triangle () on the left end of the attribute row.
5. Press the Escape key to hide the Stroke panel.
6. Click the disclosure triangle () to the left of the word “Fill” in the Appearance panel to reveal the options for the Fill. Click the word “Opacity” to reveal the Transparency panel. Change the Opacity value to 100%. Press the Escape key to hide the Transparency panel and to return to the Appearance panel.
The Opacity you just changed affects only the fill of the selected artwork.
7. Click the visibility column () to the left of the Drop Shadow attribute name in the Appearance panel.
Appearance attributes can be deleted or temporarily hidden so that they no longer are applied to the selected artwork.
8. With the Drop Shadow row selected (click to the right of the link “Drop Shadow” if it isn’t selected), click the Delete Selected Item button () at the bottom of the panel to completely remove the shadow, rather than just turning off the visibility.
You may want to drag the bottom of the Appearance panel group up to make it shorter.
9. With the trumpet shapes still selected, choose Object > Group, and leave the new group selected for the next section.
You can view all hidden attributes by choosing Show All Hidden Attributes from the Appearance panel menu ().
In the Appearance panel, the word “Group” appears at the top. With the group selected, you can now apply appearance attributes to the group, and they will appear in the panel. The word “Contents” also appears below the word “Group.” If you were to double-click the word “Contents” in the Appearance panel, you would see the appearance attributes of the individual items in the group.
Adding another stroke and fill
Artwork in Illustrator can have more than one stroke and fill applied to it to add interesting design elements. You’ll now add another fill to an object using the Appearance panel.
1. With the trumpet group still selected, click the Add New Fill button () at the bottom of the Appearance panel.
The figure has the Fill row toggled open revealing the content. Yours may not look like that, and that’s okay.
The figure shows what the panel looks like after clicking the Add New Fill button. New Stroke and Fill rows are added to the Appearance panel and are applied to the group as a whole (in this case). The fill and stroke attributes tend to be applied on top of the fill and stroke attributes applied to the individual objects in the group.
2. Click the black Fill color box in the Fill attribute row until the Swatches panel appears. Click the pattern swatch named “Paper” to apply it to the Fill. Press the Escape key to hide the Swatches panel.
Other ways to close panels that appear when clicking an underlined word, like “Stroke,” include pressing the Escape key, clicking the Stroke attribute row, or by pressing Return.
3. Click the disclosure triangle () to the left of the word “Fill,” if necessary, to show the Opacity option. Click the word “Opacity” (under the Fill row) to show the Transparency panel, and choose Multiply from the Blending Mode menu.
In the Appearance panel, appearance attributes with a disclosure triangle have options such as Opacity that affect only that appearance attribute.
4. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Now you’ll add another stroke to text using the Appearance panel. This can be a great way to achieve interesting design effects with just one object.
5. In the Layers panel (Window > Layers), click the visibility column to the left of the Text layer to show its contents.
6. Select the Type tool () in the Tools panel, and click twice on the black “JAZZ” text to select it.
In the Appearance panel, notice the Stroke (none) and the Fill (black). Also notice that you cannot add another stroke or fill to the text since the Add New Stroke and Add New Fill buttons are dimmed at the bottom of the panel.
7. Select the Selection tool and notice that “Type” shows at the top of the Appearance panel.
With the type object selected (and not the text), you can now add multiple fills and strokes to text.
8. Click the Add New Fill button () at the bottom of the Appearance panel.
I dragged the bottom of the Appearance panel down to see more of the appearance attributes.
A new fill row and stroke row are added above the word “Characters” in the Appearance panel. The “Characters” content is the formatting for the text within the text object.
9. With the new Fill attribute row selected, click the black Fill color box and select the blue/green gradient swatch named “Jazz.” This new fill will cover the existing black text fill. Press the Escape key to hide the swatches.
10. Click the Add New Fill button () at the bottom of the Appearance panel once more to add another fill.
A duplicate of the existing Fill row appears.
11. Click the bottom Fill attribute row to select it. Click the Fill color box, and select the pattern swatch named “Paper.” Press the Escape key to hide the swatches.
Notice that the paper swatch doesn’t show in the artwork. That’s because it is beneath the Fill attribute row with the “Jazz” gradient applied. As mentioned earlier, the ordering of the attribute rows is important, much like the ordering of layers is important. The top appearance row shows on top of the appearance attributes beneath it.
12. Click the disclosure triangle () to the left of all the appearance rows in the Appearance panel to hide their properties.
Depending on which attribute row is selected in the Attributes panel, the options in panels, such as the Control panel, Gradient panel, and others, will affect the attribute selected.
Reordering appearance attributes
The ordering of the appearance attribute rows can greatly change how your artwork looks. In the Appearance panel, fills and strokes are listed in stacking order—top to bottom in the panel correlates to front to back in the artwork. You can reorder attribute rows in a way similar to dragging layers in the Layers panel to rearrange the stacking order. Next, you’ll change the appearance of the artwork by reordering attributes in the Appearance panel.
1. Drag the bottom Fill attribute row (with the Paper pattern swatch applied) up above the original Fill attribute row with the blue/green gradient.
You can also apply blending modes and opacity changes to each Fill row to achieve different results.
Moving the new Fill attribute above the original Fill attribute changes the look of the artwork. The pattern fill is now covering the gradient fill.
2. Click the disclosure triangle to the left of the Fill attribute row that has the “Paper” pattern fill. Click the word “Opacity” to show the Transparency panel, and choose Multiply from the Blending Mode menu.
3. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Now that you’ve begun to explore the options in the Appearance panel, you’ll begin adding effects to the artwork and use the Appearance panel for those as well.
Applying an appearance attribute to a layer
You can also apply appearance attributes to layers or sublayers. For example, to make everything on a layer 50% opaque, you can target that layer and change the opacity. Every object on that layer will have the 50% opacity applied (even if you add the object to the layer later).
For more information on applying an appearance attribute to a layer, check out the section “Applying appearance attributes to layers” in Lesson 9, “Organizing Your Artwork with Layers.”
Using live effects
Effects alter the appearance of an object without changing the underlying artwork. Applying an effect adds the effect to the object’s appearance attribute, which you can edit, move, delete, or duplicate, at any time, in the Appearance panel.
Artwork with a Drop Shadow effect applied.
There are two types of effects in Illustrator: vector effects and raster effects. In Illustrator, click the Effect menu item to see the different types of effects available.
When you apply a raster effect, the original vector data is rasterized using the document’s raster effects settings, which determine the resolution of the resulting image. To learn about document raster effects settings, search for “Document raster effects settings” in Illustrator Help.
• Illustrator Effects (vector): The top half of the Effect menu contains vector effects. You can apply these effects only to vector objects or to the fill or stroke of a bitmap object in the Appearance panel. The following vector effects can be applied to both vector and bitmap objects: 3D effects, SVG filters, Warp effects, Transform effects, Drop Shadow, Feather, Inner Glow, and Outer Glow.
• Photoshop Effects (raster): The bottom half of the Effect menu contains raster effects. You can apply them to either vector or bitmap objects.
In this section, you will first explore how to apply and edit effects. You will then explore a few of the more widely used effects in Illustrator to get an idea for the range of effects available.
Applying an effect
Effects are applied using the Effect menu or the Appearance panel and can be applied to objects, groups, or layers. You are first going to learn how to apply an effect using the Effect menu, and then you will apply an effect using the Appearance panel.
1. With the Selection tool () selected, click the trumpet group on the artboard.
You may find it difficult to select the trumpet group with the other artwork showing and on top.
2. Choose Effect > Stylize > Drop Shadow from the Illustrator Effects section of the menu that appears.
3. In the Drop Shadow dialog box, change the following options:
• Mode: Multiply (the default setting)
• Opacity: 100%
• X Offset: .03 in
• Y Offset: .03 in
• Blur: .04 in
• Darkness: Selected, 50%
4. Select Preview to see the drop shadow applied to the artwork. Click OK.
5. Choose File > Save, and leave the trumpet group selected.
Editing an effect
Effects are live, so they can be edited after they are applied to an object. You can edit the effect in the Appearance panel by selecting the object with the effect applied and then either clicking the name of the effect or double-clicking the attribute row in the Appearance panel. This displays the dialog box for that effect. Changes you make to the effect update in the artwork. In this section, you will edit the Drop Shadow effect applied to the trumpet group.
1. With the trumpet group still selected and the Appearance panel showing, click the orange text “Drop Shadow” in the Appearance panel.
2. In the Drop Shadow dialog box, change Opacity to 75%. Select Preview to see the change, and then click OK.
3. Choose Object > Ungroup to ungroup the trumpet shapes.
Notice that the drop shadow is no longer applied to the trumpet group. When an effect is applied to a group, it affects the group as a whole. If the objects are no longer grouped together, the effect is no longer applied.
In the Appearance panel, you can drag an attribute row, such as Drop Shadow, to the Delete Selected Item button () to delete it, or you can select the attribute row and click the Delete Selected Item button.
4. Choose Edit > Undo Ungroup to regroup the artwork and apply the drop shadow again.
Styling text with a Warp effect
Text can have all sorts of effects applied, including a Warp, like you saw in Lesson 8, “Adding Type to a Poster.” Next, you will use a Warp effect to warp the date text. The difference between the Warp you applied in Lesson 8 and this Warp effect is that this Warp is an effect and can be turned on and off, edited, or removed easily.
1. With the Selection tool () selected, select the text “May 10-17.”
2. Choose Effect > Warp > Flag.
3. In the Warp Options dialog box, to create an arcing effect, set Bend to 20%. Select Preview to preview the changes. Try choosing other styles from the Style menu, and then return to Flag. Try adjusting the Horizontal and Vertical Distortion sliders to see the effect. Make sure that the Distortion values are returned to 0, and then click OK.
4. With the warped text object still selected, click the visibility icon () to the left of the “Warp: Flag” row in the Appearance panel to turn off visibility for the effect. Notice that the text is no longer warped on the artboard (see the following figure).
5. Select the Type tool () in the Tools panel, select the text “10-17” on the artboard, and change it to 10-18.
6. Select all of the text “May 10-18,” and change the Fill color to White in the Control panel.
If the Appearance panel is still open and the cursor is in the text, notice that the effect isn’t listed in the panel. That’s because the effect was applied to the type area, not to the text within.
7. Select the Selection tool () in the Tools panel. Click the visibility column to the left of the Warp: Flag row in the Appearance panel to turn on visibility for the effect so that the text is once again warped.
Since the text is white on a white background (for now), you won’t be able to see the warp.
8. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Applying the Offset Path effect
Next, you will offset the stroke for the “JAZZ” text. This process allows you to create the appearance of multiple stacked shapes.
1. With the Selection tool () selected, click the “JAZZ” text object to select it.
2. Click the Stroke color () in the Appearance panel, and make sure that the White swatch is selected in the Swatches panel. Press Enter or Return to close the Swatches panel, and return to the Appearance panel.
3. Make sure that the Stroke weight is 1 pt.
4. With the Stroke attribute row selected in the Appearance panel, choose Effect > Path > Offset Path.
5. In the Offset Path dialog box, change the Offset to –0.04 in, select Preview, and then click OK.
6. In the Appearance panel, click the disclosure triangle to the left of the words “Stroke: 1 pt” to toggle it open (if it’s not already open).
Notice that the “Offset Path” effect is a subset of Stroke. This indicates that the Offset Path effect is applied to only that Stroke.
7. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Applying a Photoshop Effect
As described earlier in the lesson, raster effects generate pixels rather than vector data. Raster effects include SVG Filters, all of the effects in the bottom portion of the Effect menu, and the Drop Shadow, Inner Glow, Outer Glow, and Feather commands in the Effect > Stylize submenu. You can apply them to either vector or bitmap objects.
Next, you will apply a Photoshop effect (raster) to the “FESTIVAL” text.
1. With the Selection tool (), click to select the “FESTIVAL” text.
2. Choose Effect > Texture > Texturizer.
When you choose most of the raster (Photoshop) effects (not all), the Filter Gallery dialog box opens. Similar to working with filters in Adobe Photoshop, where you can also access a Filter Gallery, in the Illustrator Filter Gallery, you can try different raster effects to see how they affect your artwork.
3. With the Filter Gallery dialog box open, you can see the type of filter (Texturizer) showing at the top. Choose Fit In View from the view menu in the lower-left corner of the dialog box. That should fit the artwork in the preview area, so you can see how the effect alters the artwork.
The Filter Gallery dialog box, which is resizable, contains a preview area (labeled A), effect thumbnails that you can click to apply (labeled B), settings for the currently selected effect (labeled C), and the list of effects applied (labeled D). If you want to apply a different effect, expand a category in the middle panel of the dialog box, click a thumbnail, or choose an effect name from the menu in the upper-right corner of the dialog box.
4. Change the Texturizer settings in the upper-right corner of the dialog box as follows (if necessary):
• Texture: Canvas (the default setting)
• Scaling: 110
• Relief: 5
• Light: Top (the default setting)
You can click the eye icon () to the left of the name Texturizer in the section labeled “D” above to see the artwork without the effect applied.
The Filter Gallery lets you apply only one effect at a time. If you want to apply multiple Photoshop effects, you can click OK to apply the current effect and then choose another from the Effect menu.
5. Click OK to apply the raster effect.
Working with 3D effects
Using Illustrator 3D effects, you can create three-dimensional (3D) objects from your two-dimensional (2D) artwork. You can control the appearance of 3D objects with lighting, shading, rotation, and other attributes, such as mapping artwork to each surface of the three-dimensional object (mapping is allowed with Extrude & Bevel or Revolve). There are three 3D effects that you can apply to artwork: Extrude & Bevel, Revolve, and Rotate. The following are visual examples of each type of 3D effect.
Applying a 3D Rotate effect
The Rotate effect is a simple way to rotate artwork in 3D. Next, you are going to rotate the “JAZZ” text.
1. With the Selection tool (), click to select the JAZZ text object.
2. Choose Effect > 3D > Rotate.
3. In the 3D Rotate Options dialog box, set the following options:
• X axis: 10°
• Y axis: –20°
• Z axis: 10°
• Perspective: 0° (the default setting)
• Surface: No Shading (the default setting)
3D objects may display anti-aliasing artifacts onscreen, but these artifacts generally won’t print or appear in artwork optimized for the web.
4. Select Preview to see the effect applied (if it’s not selected).
Notice the warning near the bottom of the 3D Rotate Options dialog box that states “Gradients will be rasterized.” This means that the gradient used in the “JAZZ” text fill will be rasterized (that is, displayed and printed as a bitmap graphic). The resolution (PPI) of the rasterized portion of the artwork is based on the settings in the Document Raster Effects Settings dialog box (Effect > Document Raster Effects Settings).
5. Click and drag the left edge of the face of the track cube (it’s blue in color) to the right (see the figure). Notice the text rotate as you drag.
For unconstrained rotation, you can drag a track cube face. The front of the object is represented by the track cube’s blue face, the object’s top and bottom faces are light gray, the sides are medium gray, and the back face is dark gray.
Depending on the speed of the computer you are working on and the amount of RAM available, it may take some time to process changes made. If that’s the case, you can deselect Preview, change the options, and then select Preview at the end.
6. Choose Off-Axis Front from the Position menu, and click OK.
7. With the Selection tool, drag the text up to position it, like you see in the following figure.
Notice that every time you release the mouse button, Illustrator needs to process the change and redraw the 3D text. You will not see the 3D text as you drag; instead, you will see the text without the effect.
8. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Using graphic styles
A graphic style is a saved set of appearance attributes that you can reuse. By applying graphic styles, you can quickly and globally change the appearance of objects and text.
The Graphic Styles panel (Window > Graphic Styles) lets you create, name, save, apply, and remove effects and attributes for objects, layers, and groups. You can also break the link between an object and an applied graphic style to edit that object’s attributes without affecting other objects that use the same graphic style.
The different options available in the Graphic Styles panel are described here:
A. Graphic Style thumbnail
B. Graphic Styles Libraries menu
C. Break Link To Graphic Style
D. New Graphic Style
E. Delete Graphic Style
For example, if you have a map that uses a shape to represent a city, you can create a graphic style that paints the shape green and adds a drop shadow. You can then use that graphic style to paint all the city shapes on the map. If you decide to use a different color, you can change the fill color of the graphic style to blue. All the objects that use that graphic style are then updated to blue.
Applying an existing graphic style
You can apply graphic styles to your artwork from graphic style libraries that come with Illustrator. Now you’ll add a graphic style to some of the text in the design.
1. Click the Graphic Styles panel tab. Click the Graphic Styles Libraries Menu button () at the bottom of the panel, and choose Vonster Pattern Styles.
Use the arrows at the bottom of the Vonster Pattern Styles library panel to load the previous or next Graphic Styles library in the panel.
2. With the Selection tool (), select the number 3 shape in the upper-left corner of the artboard. Make sure not to select the “JAZZ” text.
3. Click the “Alyssa 1” graphic style in the Vonster Pattern Styles panel. Close the Vonster Pattern Styles panel.
Clicking that style applies the appearance attributes to the selected “3” artwork and adds the graphic style to the Graphic Styles panel for the active document.
4. With the number 3 still selected, look in the Appearance panel to see the stroke and multiple fills applied to the selected artwork. Also notice Path: Alyssa 1 at the top of the panel. This indicates that the graphic style Alyssa 1 is applied.
You may see a warning icon appear on the left end of the Control panel. That’s okay. This is a helpful indicator that the topmost fill/stroke is not active in the Appearance panel.
5. Click the Graphics Style panel tab to show the panel again.
6. With the Selection tool, select the JAZZ text, and then right-click and hold down the mouse button on the Alyssa 1 graphic style thumbnail in the Graphic Styles panel to preview the graphic style on the artwork. When you’re finished previewing, release the mouse button.
Previewing a graphic style is a great way to see how it will affect the selected object, without actually applying it.
7. Choose File > Save.
Creating and applying a graphic style
Now you’ll create a new graphic style and apply that graphic style to artwork.
1. Click the number 3 again, and click the Appearance panel tab to show the panel. Click the Add New Fill button () at the bottom of the Appearance panel.
You can drag the bottom of the Appearance panel down to see more of the attributes.
There should now be a total of three fills applied to the number 3. Also notice that Alyssa 1 is gone from the Path toward the top of the panel. This means that the graphic style is no longer applied to the artwork. The number 3 will not update if the Alyssa 1 graphic style is edited.
2. Make the following changes to the Fill attribute rows, using the figure as a guide:
• Top Fill attribute row: Click the Fill color, and select the pattern swatch named “Lines.” Press the Escape key to hide the swatches.
• Middle Fill attribute row: Click the Fill color, and select the pattern swatch named “Paper.” Click the disclosure triangle to the left of the same Fill row, and click the Opacity link below the Paper fill row to show the Transparency panel. Choose Luminosity from the Blending Mode menu. Press the Escape key to hide the Transparency panel.
• Bottom Fill attribute row: Click the Fill color, and select the orange swatch named “Festival.” Press the Escape key to hide the swatches.
The number 3 should now have a series of textures and an orange color applied to the fill. Remember that the order of the attribute rows in the Appearance panel is important. This is especially important when you change the Opacity blending modes and want to blend the appearance attributes to achieve certain visual effects. Blending modes affect attribute rows below the attribute row that the blend mode is applied to in the Appearance panel.
3. Leave the number 3 shape selected.
4. Click the Graphic Styles panel tab to show the Graphic Styles panel. Click the New Graphic Style button () at the bottom of the panel.
To create a graphic style, you can also click to select the object that you are using to make the graphic style. In the Appearance panel, drag the appearance thumbnail at the top of the listing into the Graphic Styles panel. The panels can’t be in the same panel group.
The appearance attributes from the number 3 artwork are saved as a graphic style.
5. In the Graphic Styles panel, double-click the new graphic style thumbnail. In the Graphic Style Options dialog box, name the new style Number. Click OK.
6. Click the Appearance panel tab, and at the top of the Appearance panel you will see “Path: Number.”
This indicates that a graphic style named Number is applied to the selected artwork (a path). You could now apply the Number graphic style to other artwork.
7. Open the Layers panel (Window > Layers), and click the visibility column for the Background layer to show the black shape behind the other content on the artboard. Click the lock icon in the edit column to unlock the Background layer as well.
8. With the Selection tool, click the black rectangle in the background. In the Graphic Styles panel, click the graphic style named “Number” to apply the styling.
9. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Applying a graphic style to text
When you apply a graphic style to a type area, the fill color of the graphic style overrides the fill color of the text by default. If you deselect Override Character Color from the Graphic Styles panel menu (), the fill color (if there is one) in the text will override the color of the graphic style.
If you choose Use Text For Preview from the Graphic Styles panel menu (), you can then right-click and hold down the mouse button on a graphic style to preview the graphic style on the text.
Updating a graphic style
Once you create a graphic style, you can still edit the object that the style is applied to. You can also update a graphic style, and all artwork with that style applied will update its appearance as well.
1. With the Selection tool () selected, click the number 3 to select it.
The number 3 may be difficult to see since it has the same fill as the background shape.
Look in the Graphic Styles panel; you will see that the Number graphic style thumbnail is highlighted (has a border around it), indicating that it is applied.
2. Click the Appearance panel tab. Notice the text “Path: Number” at the top of the panel, indicating that the Number graphic style is applied. This is another way to tell whether a graphic style is applied to selected artwork.
3. Click the Fill color for the bottom appearance row (the one with the orange color). Select the purple swatch named “Hills.” Press the Escape key to hide the swatches.
Notice that the “Path: Number” text at the top of the Appearance panel is now just “Path,” telling you that the graphic style is no longer applied to the selected artwork.
4. Click the Graphic Styles panel tab to see that the Number graphic style no longer has a highlight (border) around it, which means that the graphic style is no longer applied.
5. Press the Option (Mac OS) or Alt (Windows) key, and drag the selected number 3 shape on top of the Number graphic-style thumbnail in the Graphic Styles panel. Release the mouse button, and then release the modifier key when the thumbnail is highlighted. The number 3 and the background rectangle now look the same since the Number graphic style has been applied to both objects.
6. Choose Select > Deselect.
7. Click the Appearance panel tab. You will see “No Selection: Number” at the top of the panel (you may need to scroll up).
When you apply appearance settings, graphic styles, and more to artwork, the next shape you draw will have the appearance settings listed in the Appearance panel.
8. Click to select the rectangle in the background that has the Number graphic style applied.
Next, you will remove all formatting from the rectangle and then add a black fill again.
9. Click the Clear Appearance button () at the bottom of the Appearance panel.
If you were to click the Clear Appearance button with nothing selected, you would set the default appearance for new artwork to no fill and no stroke.
The figure shows the result after clicking the Clear Appearance button
With artwork selected, the Clear Appearance button removes all appearance attributes applied to selected artwork, including any stroke or fill.
10. Click the Fill color for the Fill appearance row, and in the Swatches panel that appears, select the Black swatch.
11. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Applying a graphic style to a layer
When a graphic style is applied to a layer, everything added to that layer has that same style applied to it. Now you’ll apply a Drop Shadow graphic style that comes with Illustrator to the Text layer; this will apply the style to all the contents of that layer at once.
If you apply a graphic style to artwork and then apply a graphic style to the layer (or sublayer) that it’s on, the graphic style formatting is added to the appearance of the artwork—it’s cumulative. This can change the artwork in ways you didn’t expect since applying a graphic style to the layer will be added to the formatting of the artwork.
1. In Layers panel, click the target icon () for the Text layer.
This selects the layer content and targets the layer for any appearance attributes.
In the Layers panel, you can drag a target icon to the Trash button () at the bottom of the Layers panel to remove the appearance attributes.
2. Click the Graphic Styles panel icon (), and then click the Drop Shadow graphic style thumbnail to apply the style to the layer and all its contents.
The target icon in the Layers panel for the Text layer is now shaded.
3. Click the Appearance panel tab, and you should see, with all of the artwork on the Text layer still selected, the words “Layer: Drop Shadow.”
This is telling you that the layer target icon is selected in the Layers panel and that the Drop Shadow graphic style is applied to that layer.
In the Graphic Styles panel, graphic-style thumbnails that show a small box with a red slash () indicate that the graphic style does not contain a stroke or fill. It may just be a drop shadow or outer glow, for instance.
4. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.
Applying multiple graphic styles
You can apply a graphic style to an object that already has a graphic style applied. This can be useful if you want to add properties to an object from another graphic style. After you apply a graphic style to selected artwork, you can then Option-click (Mac OS) or Alt-click (Windows) another graphic style thumbnail to add the graphic style formatting to the existing formatting, rather than replacing it.
Scaling strokes and effects
In Illustrator, when scaling (resizing) content, any strokes and effects that are applied do not change. For instance, suppose you scale a circle with a 2-pt. stroke from small to the size of the artboard. The shape may change size, but the stroke will remain 2 pt. by default. That can change the appearance of scaled artwork in a way that you didn’t intend, so you’ll need to watch out for that when transforming artwork. Next, you will make the trumpet group larger, but you will also scale the drop shadow effect applied to it proportionally.
1. Click the trumpet group to select it.
If you choose Window > Transform to open the Transform panel, you may need to choose Show Options from the panel menu.
2. Click X, Y, W, or H in the Control panel to reveal the Transform panel (Window > Transform), and make the following edits in the panel:
• Select Scale Strokes & Effects at the bottom of the Transform panel.
• Click the Constrain Width And Height Proportions button () to ensure it’s active.
• Change the Width (W) to 12.7 in. Press the Tab key to tab to the next field. The height should change proportionally with the width.
If you were to open the Drop Shadow options in the Appearance panel for the trumpet group, you would see that the values have adjusted according to the sizing. If Scale Strokes & Effects weren’t selected, the drop shadow values would be the same before and after the transformation.
3. Choose Select > Deselect.
4. Choose File > Save, and then choose File > Close.
1. How do you add a second stroke to artwork?
2. What’s the difference between applying a graphic style to a layer versus applying it to selected artwork?
3. Name two ways to apply an effect to an object.
4. When you apply a Photoshop (raster) effect to vector artwork, what happens to the artwork?
5. Where can you access the options for effects applied to an object?
1. To add a second stroke to an object, click the Add New Stroke button () in the Appearance panel, or choose Add New Stroke from the Appearance panel menu. A stroke is added to the top of the appearance list. It has the same color and stroke weight as the original.
2. When a style is applied to a single object, other objects on that layer are not affected. For example, if a triangle object has a Roughen effect applied to its path and you move it to another layer, it retains the Roughen effect.
After a graphic style is applied to a layer, everything you add to the layer has that style applied to it. For example, if you create a circle on Layer 1 and then move that circle to Layer 2, which has a Drop Shadow effect applied, the circle adopts that effect.
3. You can apply an effect to an object by selecting the object and then choosing the effect from the Effect menu. You can also apply an effect by selecting the object, clicking the Add New Effect button () at the bottom of the Appearance panel, and then choosing the effect from the menu that appears.
4. Applying a Photoshop effect to artwork generates pixels rather than vector data. Photoshop effects include SVG Filters, all of the effects in the bottom portion of the Effect menu, and the Drop Shadow, Inner Glow, Outer Glow, and Feather commands in the Effect > Stylize submenu. You can apply them to either vector or bitmap objects.
5. You can edit effects applied to selected artwork by clicking the effect link in the Appearance panel to access the effect options.