Adobe Illustrator CC Classroom in a Book 2015 release (2016)

8. Adding Type to a Poster

Lesson overview

In this lesson, you’ll learn how to do the following:

• Create and edit area and point type.

• Import text.

• Create columns of text.

• Change text attributes.

• Modify text with the Touch Type tool.

• Create and edit paragraph and character styles.

• Copy and apply text attributes by sampling type.

• Wrap type around an object.

• Reshape text with a warp.

• Create type on a path and on shapes.

• Create text outlines.

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This lesson takes approximately 75 minutes to complete.

Download the project files for this lesson from the Lesson & Update Files tab on your Account page at www.peachpit.com and store them on your computer in a convenient location, as described in the “Getting Started” section of this book.

Your Account page is also where you’ll find any updates to the chapters or to the lesson files. Look on the Lesson & Update Files tab to access the most current content.

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Text as a design element plays a major role in your illustrations. Like other objects, type can be painted, scaled, rotated, and more. In this lesson, you’ll discover how to create basic text and interesting text effects.

Getting started

You’ll be adding type to a poster and postcard during this lesson, but before you begin, restore the default preferences for Adobe Illustrator CC. Then open the finished art file for this lesson to see the illustration.

1. To ensure that the tools and panels function exactly as described in this lesson, delete or deactivate (by renaming) the Adobe Illustrator CC preferences file. See “Restoring default preferences” in the “Getting Started” section at the beginning of the book.


Image Note

If you have not already downloaded the project files for this lesson to your computer from your Account page, make sure to do so now. See “Getting Started” at the beginning of the book.


2. Start Adobe Illustrator CC.

3. Choose File > Open. Locate the file named L8_end.ai in the Lessons > Lesson08 folder. Click Open. You will most likely see a Missing Fonts dialog box since the file is using a specific Typekit font. Simply click Close in the Missing Fonts dialog box. You will learn all about Typekit fonts later in this lesson.

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Leave the file open for reference later in the lesson, if you like. I closed it.

4. Choose File > Open. If a panel appears, click Open in the panel. You could also choose File > Open again. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the Lessons > Lesson08 folder and select the L8_start.ai file on your hard disk. Click Open to open the file.

This file already has non-text components in it. You will add all of the text elements to complete the poster and card (front and back).

5. Choose File > Save As. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to the Lesson08 folder and name the file BuzzSoda.ai. Leave the Format option set to Adobe Illustrator (ai) (Mac OS) or Save As Type option set to Adobe Illustrator (*.AI) (Windows), and then click Save.

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6. In the Illustrator Options dialog box, leave the Illustrator options at their default settings, and then click OK.

7. Choose View > Smart Guides to turn off the Smart Guides. Turning off the Smart Guides will make it easier to create text without snapping to existing content.

8. Choose Window > Workspace > Reset Essentials.


Image Note

If you don’t see Reset Essentials in the Workspace menu, choose Window > Workspace > Essentials before choosing Window > Workspace > Reset Essentials.


Adding type to the poster

Type features are some of the most powerful tools in Illustrator. You can add a single line of type to your artwork, create columns and rows of text like you do in Adobe InDesign, flow text into a shape or along a path, and work with letterforms as graphic objects. In Illustrator, you can create text in three different ways: as point type, area type, and type on a path.

Adding text at a point

Point type is a horizontal or vertical line of text that begins where you click and expands as you enter characters. Each line of text is independent—the line expands or shrinks as you edit it but doesn’t wrap to the next line unless you add a paragraph return or a soft return. Entering text this way is useful for adding a headline or a few words to your artwork. Next, you will enter some text in the poster as point type.

1. Ensure that 1 Poster is chosen in the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

2. Select the Zoom tool (Image) in the Tools panel, and click in the top half of the large artboard twice, slowly.

3. Choose Window > Layers to show the panel. Select the layer named “Text,” if it’s not already selected. Click the Layers panel tab to collapse it.

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Image Note

Selecting a layer means any content you create going forward will be on that layer.


4. Select the Type tool (Image), and click (don’t drag) in the white area near the top of the artboard. The cursor appears on the artboard. Type BUZZ soda (make sure BUZZ is uppercase).

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5. Select the Selection tool (Image) in the Tools panel, and notice the bounding box that appears around the text. Drag the lower-right bounding point, away from the center of the text (see the figure). The text will stretch if you drag any bounding point.

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Image Note

Scaling point type this way may result in a font size that is not a round number (12.93 pt, for instance).


6. Choose Edit > Undo Scale, and then choose View > Fit Artboard In Window.

Adding area type

Area type uses the boundaries of an object (like a rectangle) to control the flow of characters, either horizontally or vertically. When the text reaches a boundary, it automatically wraps to fit inside the defined area. Entering text in this way is useful when you want to create one or more paragraphs, such as for a poster or a brochure.

To create area type, you click with the Type tool (Image) where you want the text and drag to create an area type object (also called a text area). You can also convert an existing shape or object to a type object by clicking the edge of an object (or inside the object) with the Type tool. When the cursor appears, you can type. Next, you will create an area type object and enter more text.

1. Choose View > Smart Guides to turn on the Smart Guides.

2. Choose 2 CardFront from the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

3. Select the Type tool (Image). Position the cursor roughly in the middle of the artboard. Click and drag down and to the right to create a text area with a width and height of roughly 1 inch.

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4. With the cursor in the new text area, type Buzz Soda Company.

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Notice how the text wraps horizontally to fit within the type area.

5. Select the Selection tool (Image) and drag the lower-right bounding point to the left and then back to the right to see how the text wraps within.

You can drag any of the eight bounding points on the text area to resize it, not just the lower-right.

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6. Before you continue, make sure that the area type looks like you see in the figure.

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Working with Auto Sizing

By default, when you create area type by dragging with the Type tool, the type area will not resize to fit the text within (similar to how InDesign treats text frames by default). If there is too much text, the text that doesn’t fit will not be visible and will be considered overset. For each type area, you can enable a feature called Auto Sizing so that area type will resize to fit the text within, and that’s what you’ll do next.

1. With the text area selected, look at the bottom, middle bounding point and you’ll see a widget (Image) indicating that the type area is not set to auto size. Hover the pointer over the box at the end of the widget (the pointer will change [Image]), and double-click.

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Image Note

The figure shows just before double-clicking.


By double-clicking the widget, you turn Auto Sizing on. As the text is edited and re-edited, the frame shrinks and grows vertically (only) to accommodate the changing amount of copy and eliminates overset text without manually sizing and resizing frames.

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Image Tip

If Auto Sizing is enabled for a selected type area, dragging one of the bottom bounding points on the type area down, disables Auto Sizing for the type area.


2. Select the Type tool, and insert the cursor after the word “Company.” Press Enter or Return, and type Raleigh, North Carolina.

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Image Tip

If you double-click text with the Selection tool (Image) or Direct Selection tool (Image), the Type tool becomes selected.


The type area will expand vertically to fit the new text. If you were to double click the Auto Sizing widget, Auto Sizing would be turned off for the area type. The type area would remain the current size no matter how much text was added.

3. Select the Type tool (Image), and select all of the text, except for “Buzz Soda Co,” and delete it.

Notice that the type area shrank vertically to fit around the text. Leave the text where it is for now.

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4. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.

In the next section, you’ll continue editing the text on the 2 CardFront artboard.

Converting between area and point type

You can easily convert between area and point type objects. This method can be useful if you type a headline by clicking (creating point type) but later wish to resize and add more text without stretching the text inside. This method is also useful if you paste text from InDesign into Illustrator because text pasted from InDesign into Illustrator (with nothing selected) is pasted as point type. Most of the time, it would be better suited as an area type object so that you could flow the text within.

Next, you will convert the “Buzz Soda Co” text object on the 2 CardFront artboard from area type to point type. In this instance, you want the text to resize when you resize the bounding box to make it easier on us later.

1. While still on the 2 CardFront artboard with the text “Buzz Soda Co” on it, select the Type tool and insert the cursor right before the “S” in “Soda Co.” Press Backspace or Delete to remove the space between “Buzz” and “Soda.” Press Shift+Enter or Shift+Return to add a soft return.

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2. Select the Selection tool (Image), and position the pointer over the annotator (Image) off the right edge of the type object. A filled end on the annotator indicates that it’s area type. When the pointer changes (Image), click once to see the message “Double-click to convert to Point Type.” Double-click the annotator to convert the area type to point type.

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Image Tip

With a text object selected, you can also choose Type > Convert To Point Type or Convert To Area Type, depending on what the selected text area is.


The annotator end should now be hollow (Image), indicating that it is a point type object. If you were to resize the bounding box, the text would scale as well.

3. Press the Shift key and drag the lower-right bounding point down and to the right until you see a width of 2.5 inches in the measurement label next to the pointer. Release the mouse button and then the key.

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As you saw earlier, because the text is now point type, it stretches when the type area is resized. Pressing the Shift key is very important because otherwise the text will most likely be distorted.

4. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.

Importing a plain-text file

You can import text into artwork from a file that was created in another application. Illustrator supports DOC, DOCX, RTF, Plain text (ASCII) with ANSI, Unicode, Shift JIS, GB2312, Chinese Big 5, Cyrillic, GB18030, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, and Central European encoding. One of the advantages of importing text from a file, rather than copying and pasting it, is that imported text retains its character and paragraph formatting (by default). For example, text from an RTF file retains its font and style specifications in Illustrator, unless you choose to remove formatting when you import the text. In this section, you’ll place text from a plain-text file into your design.

1. Choose 1 Poster from the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

2. Choose File > Place. In the Lessons > Lesson08 folder, select the L8_text.txt file, select Show Import Options, and click Place.

3. In the Text Import Options dialog box, you can set some options prior to importing text. Leave the default settings, and then click OK.

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Image Note

The figures are from Mac OS, so the Platform options that you see may be different, and that’s okay.


4. Position the loaded text pointer over the upper-left corner of the aqua guide box on the left side of the artboard. When the word “anchor” appears, click and drag down and to the right. As you drag, notice that the width and height are constrained (always the same proportion). Drag until the pointer reaches the right edge of the aqua guide box, and then release the mouse button.

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If you were to simply click with the loaded text pointer, an area type object would be created that was smaller than the size of the artboard.

5. With the Selection tool (Image), drag the bottom bounding point of the type object up to the horizontal guide. An overset text icon (Image) appears in the out port.

6. Leave the area type object selected.

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Placing Microsoft Word documents

When you place (File > Place) RTF (Rich Text Format) or Word documents (DOC or DOCX) in Illustrator, the Microsoft Word Options dialog box appears.

In this dialog box, you can select to keep the generated table of contents, footnotes and endnotes, and index text, and you can even choose to remove the formatting of the text before you place it (the styles and formatting are brought in from Word by default).


Threading text

When working with area type (not point type), each area type object contains an in port and an out port. The ports enable you to link type objects and flow text between them.

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An empty out port indicates that all the text is visible and that the object isn’t linked. An arrow in a port indicates that the type object is linked to another type object. A red plus sign (Image) in an out port indicates that the object contains additional text, which is called overflow text. To show all of the overflow text, you can thread the text to another type object, resize the type object, or adjust the text. To thread, or continue, text from one object to the next, you have to link the objects. Linked type objects can be of any shape; however, the text must be entered in an object or along a path, not as point type (by simply clicking to create text).

Next, you will practice threading text a few times.

1. With the Selection tool (Image), click the out port (larger box) in the lower-right corner of the type object that has the red plus sign in it (Image). The pointer changes to a loaded text icon (Image) when you move it away.

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Image Note

If you double-click an out port, a new type object appears. If this happens, you can either drag the new object where you would like it to be positioned or choose Edit > Undo Link Threaded Text, and the loaded text icon reappears.



Image Note

It may be difficult to click the out port because of the guides. You can always zoom in, remembering to zoom out again for the next steps.


2. Position the pointer in the upper-left corner of the aqua guide box to the right and click when the word “anchor” appears. An area type object is created that is as wide and tall as the original.

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With the second type object still selected, notice the line between the two objects. This line is the thread that tells you that the two objects are connected. If you don’t see this thread (line), choose View > Show Text Threads.


Image Tip

Another way to thread text between objects is to select an area type object, select the object (or objects) you want to link to, and then choose Type > Threaded Text > Create.


The out port (Image) of the type object that is the first (left) column on the artboard and the in port (Image) of the type object that is the second (right) column on the artboard have small arrows in them indicating how the text is flowing from one to the other. If you delete the second type object, the text is pulled back into the original object as overflow text. Although not visible, the overflow text is not deleted.

3. Click the out port in the lower-right corner of the second type object. It may have a red plus sign in it (Image) indicating overset text, or it may be empty (Image). Mine was empty. Move the pointer away after clicking and you should see the loaded text icon like before.

4. Choose 3 CardBack from the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

5. Click and drag to create a blank text area on the artboard within the aqua guide box.

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Image Tip

You can split the threaded text so that each type area is no longer connected to the next by selecting one of the threaded text areas and choosing Type > Threaded Text > Remove Threading.


The new text area most likely will not contain any text. If it does, that’s okay. In the next section, you’ll learn how to format the text so that it is more readable. The text will begin to flow between the type areas as the formatting (like font size) changes, and that’s what you want.

Formatting type

You can format text using character and paragraph formatting, apply fill and stroke attributes to it, and change its transparency (how see-through it is). You can apply these changes to one character, a range of characters, or all characters in a type object that you select. As you’ll soon see, selecting the type object, rather than selecting the text inside, lets you apply global formatting options to all of the text in the object, including options from the Character and Paragraph panels, fill and stroke attributes, and transparency settings.

In this section, you’ll discover how to change text attributes, such as size and font, and later learn how to save that formatting as text styles.

Changing font family and font style

In this section, you’ll apply a font to text. Aside from applying local fonts to text from your machine, Creative Cloud users can apply Typekit fonts that have been synced with their computer. Typekit is a subscription service offering access to a library of fonts for use in desktop applications such as InDesign or Microsoft Word and on websites. A Typekit Portfolio plan is included with your Creative Cloud subscription, and trial Creative Cloud members have access to a selection of fonts from Typekit for web and desktop use. The fonts appear alongside other locally installed fonts in the fonts list in Illustrator, as you’ll soon see. By default, Typekit is turned on in the Creative Cloud desktop application (version 1.9 and later) so that it can sync fonts and make them available in your desktop applications.


Image Note

The Creative Cloud desktop application must be installed on your computer and you must have an Internet connection to initially sync fonts. The Creative Cloud desktop application is installed automatically when you install your first Creative Cloud application, like Illustrator.



Image Note

For questions about Typekit font licensing, visit http://help.typekit.com/customer/portal/articles/1341590-typekit-font-licensing. For more information on working with Typekit fonts, visit https://helpx.adobe.com/creative-cloud/help/add-fonts-typekit.html.


Sync Typekit fonts

Next, you’ll select and sync a few Typekit fonts to your machine so that you may use them in Illustrator.

1. Ensure that the Creative Cloud for desktop application is launched and you are signed in with your Adobe ID (this requires an Internet connection).

2. In Illustrator, choose 1 Poster from the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

3. Press Command++ (Mac OS) or Ctrl++ (Windows) twice to zoom into the text in the center of the artboard.

4. Select the Type tool (Image) in the Tools panel, and with the pointer over the text, click to insert the cursor in either column of text. Choose Select > All or press Command+A (Mac OS) or Ctrl+A (Windows) to select all the text in the threaded text objects.


Image Note

If you miss the text when you attempt to insert the cursor, you will create point type. Choose Edit > Undo Type, if that’s the case, and try again.


5. Click the arrow to the right of the Font menu in the Control panel, and notice the fonts that appear in the menu. These fonts are those that are installed locally. Click the Add Fonts From Typekit button.

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Image Note

You may see the word “Character” instead of the Font menu listed in the Control panel. Click the word “Character” to reveal the Character panel, and then click the Font menu.



Image Note

If you are taken to the Typekit.com home page, you can simply click the Browse Fonts button.


A browser will open and should open the Typekit.com website and log you in using your Adobe ID. If you do not have an Internet connection, you can choose any other font in the font menu instead.

6. Once the Typekit.com website is open in your browser, click the Sans Serif button in the Classification options to sort the fonts, showing only available sans serif fonts.

7. Make sure that the Sync button is selected to show all fonts that are available for use in desktop applications.

8. Hover over the font “Adelle Sans” or another font, and click +Use Fonts.

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Image Note

If you don’t see +Use Fonts, you will most likely need to log in to the Typekit site using your Adobe ID.


9. In the pop-up that appears, click Sync Selected Fonts. After the fonts have synced, click Close to return to the main Typekit web page.

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Image Tip

The fonts are synced to all computers where you’ve installed the Creative Cloud application and logged in. To view fonts, open the Creative Cloud desktop application, and click the Assets > Fonts panel.


10. Type Copal in the Search Typekit field above the font list. Click the search glass (Image) or press Enter or Return to search the site for the Copal font.

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11. Position the pointer over the Copal Std Outline font, and click + Use Fonts.

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Image Note

The font order you see may be different, and that’s okay.


12. Follow the same process as before by clicking Sync Selected Fonts and then clicking Close. You can close the browser and return to Illustrator.

Once the fonts are synced to your computer (be patient, it may take a few minutes), a quick notification is typically displayed in your OS, indicating how many fonts have been added.

Apply the Typekit fonts to text in Illustrator

Now that the Typekit fonts are synced with your machine, you can use them in any application, and that’s what you’ll do next.

1. Back in Illustrator, with the threaded text still selected, click the arrow to the right of the Font menu in the Control panel, and click the Apply Typekit Filter button (Image) to filter the font list and show only the Typekit fonts you just synced.

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2. Click the arrow to the left of Adelle Sans in the menu, and choose Regular.

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Image Note

You may see other Typekit fonts in your menu (aside from the Adelle Sans font), and that’s okay.


3. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window.

4. With the Selection tool (Image), click the “BUZZ soda” text at the top of the artboard to select the object.

If you want to apply the same font to all of the text in a point type or area type object, you can simply select the object, not the text, and then apply the font.

5. Choose Type > Font > Adelle Sans > Bold (or another font).

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Image Tip

You could also use the arrow keys (Up and Down) to navigate the list of fonts. When the font you want is chosen, you can press Enter or Return to apply it.


Your font list probably won’t be the same as you see in the figure, and that’s okay.

Next, you will use Font search to locate a font. This next method is the most dynamic method for selecting a font.

6. Select the Zoom tool (Image) in the Tools panel, and click twice on the “BUZZ soda” text to zoom in.

7. Select the Type tool, and double-click the word “BUZZ” to select it.

8. With the text selected, select the Adelle Sans font name in the Control panel. Begin typing the letters cop.

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Image Tip

With the cursor in the font name field, you can also click the X on the right side of the Font Family field to remove the current font shown.


Notice that a menu appears beneath where you are typing. Illustrator filters through the list of fonts and displays the font names that contain “cop,” regardless of where “cop” is in the font name and regardless of whether it’s capitalized. The Typekit font filter is still turned on from before, so you will turn it off next.

9. Click the Clear Filter button (Image) in the menu that is showing to see all of the available fonts (see previous figure). In the menu that appears beneath where you are typing, click to select Copal Std Outline to apply the font to the selected text. Leave the text selected.

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Image Tip

You can click the Eyeglass icon (Image) to the left of the Font Name field and choose to search the first word only. You can also open the Character panel (Window > Type > Character) and search for a font by typing the name.


When the menu of fonts appears, you’ll notice an icon to the right of the name indicating what type of font it is (Tk is Typekit, O is OpenType, TT is TrueType, and a is Adobe Postscript). Notice that each of the fonts in the list also shows sample text with the font applied. Font styles are specific to each font family. For instance, although you may have the Adobe Garamond Pro font family on your system, you may not have the bold or italic styles of that family.


Image Tip

You’ll learn about the Package command in Lesson 14, “Using Illustrator CC with Other Adobe Applications.”



Illustrator Package (File > Package) and Typekit fonts

In Illustrator, you can package the content associated with an Illustrator document using the File > Package command. Illustrator CC will not package Typekit desktop fonts but will continue to package conventionally licensed fonts, except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts, which have never been packaged by Illustrator. Recipients who are Creative Cloud members or Typekit subscribers can easily obtain the fonts through their online service when the file is opened.

—From Illustrator Help


Changing font size

By default, typeface size is measured in points (a point equals 1/72 of an inch). In this section, you will change the font size of text and also see what happens to point type that is scaled.

1. With the “BUZZ” text at the top of the artboard and Type tool (Image) still selected, choose 72 pt from the preset sizes in the Font Size menu in the Control panel. The figure shows the font size applied.

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Image Note

You may see the word “Character” instead of the Font Size field in the Control panel. Click the word “Character” to reveal the Character panel.


2. Select 72 pt in the Font Size field in the Control panel, and type 88. Press Enter or Return.

3. Insert the cursor before the “S” in “Soda.” Press Backspace or Delete to remove the space between “BUZZ” and “soda.” Press Enter or Return so that “soda” is on its own line.

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4. Drag across the word “soda” to select it.


Image Tip

You can dynamically change the font size of selected text using keyboard shortcuts. To increase the font size in increments of 2 points, press Command+Shift+>(Mac OS) or Ctrl+Shift+>(Windows). To reduce the font size, press Command+Shift+<(Mac OS) or Ctrl+Shift+<(Windows).


5. Choose 72 pt from the preset sizes in the Font Size menu in the Control panel, and leave the “soda” text selected.

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Changing font color

You can change the appearance of text by applying fills, strokes, and more. In this example, you will change the stroke and then the fill of the selected text.

1. Click the Layers panel icon (Image) to expand the panel. Click the visibility column to the left of the layer named “Poster Heading.” Click the Layers panel tab to collapse it.

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2. With the “soda” text still selected, click the Stroke color in the Control panel. When the Swatches panel appears, select the swatch named “BuzzBrown.”

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3. Change the Stroke weight of the text to 2 pt in the Control panel.

4. Click the Fill color in the Control panel. When the Swatches panel appears, select the swatch named “Gold.”

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5. Choose Select > Deselect.

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6. Choose File > Save.

Changing additional character formatting

In Illustrator you can change a lot of text attributes besides font, font size, and color. Like in InDesign, text attributes are split between character and paragraph formatting and can be found in two panels: the Character panel and the Paragraph panel.

The Character panel, which you can access by clicking the underlined word “Character” in the Control panel or by choosing Window > Type > Character, contains formatting for selected text such as font, font size, kerning, and more. In this section, you will apply some of the many possible attributes to experiment with the different ways you can format text.

1. Open the Character panel by choosing Window > Type > Character. Click the double arrow on the left side of the Character panel tab to show more options.

The following are the formatting options available in the Character panel when all options are showing.

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A. Touch Type tool
B. Font Family
C. Font Style
D. Font Size
E. Kerning
F. Vertical Scale
G. Baseline Shift
H. All Caps
I. Small Caps
J. Language
K. Superscript
L. Subscript
M. Text Anti-Aliasing
N. Leading
O. Tracking
P. Horizontal Scale
Q. Character Rotation
R. Strikethrough
S. Underline

2. Press the spacebar to access the Hand tool temporarily. Drag the artboard up just enough to see the threaded text below.

3. With the Type tool (Image) selected, click in either of the threaded text objects on the artboard that contain the placed text. Choose Select > All.

4. In the Character panel, change the following options:

• Font Size: 11 pt

• Leading (Image): 14 pt (Leading is the vertical space between lines of text. Adjusting the leading can be useful for fitting text into a text area.)

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Image Tip

You could also click the word “Character” in the Control panel to show the Character panel.


5. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window.

6. Double-click in the word “soda” in “BUZZ soda” toward the top of the artboard to select it.

7. With the text selected, change the following formatting in the Character panel:

• Leading (Image): 60 pt.

• Click the Tracking icon (Image) in the Character panel to select the value in the Tracking field, and type 40. Press Enter or Return. Tracking changes the spacing between characters. A positive value pushes the letters apart horizontally; a negative value pulls the letters closer together.

• Click the All Caps button (Image) to make the word uppercase. Changing case this way is not a permanent change since it is styling applied and can be removed later.

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Image Tip

If you want to permanently change the case of text, you can choose Type > Change Case and choose a method.


8. With the text object still selected, click the Vertical Scale icon (Image) in the Character panel to select the value and type 80. Press Enter or Return to accept the value. Change Horizontal Scale to 110.

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9. Leave the Character panel open.

10. Choose Select > Deselect.


Working with glyphs

Glyphs are characters within a certain typeface that may be harder to find, like a bullet point or a registration symbol. In Illustrator, the Glyphs panel (Type > Glyphs) is used to insert type characters, like trademark symbols (™). The panel shows all of the characters (glyphs) available for a given font.

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To learn more about working with glyphs in Illustrator, search for “Glyphs” in Illustrator Help (Help > Illustrator Help).


Changing paragraph formatting

As with character formatting, you can set paragraph formatting, such as alignment or indenting, before you enter new type or change the appearance of existing type. Paragraph formatting applies to entire paragraphs rather than just selected content. Most of this type of formatting is done in the Paragraph panel, which you can access by clicking the underlined word “Paragraph” in the Control panel or by choosing Window > Type > Paragraph.


Image Tip

You could also click the word “Paragraph” in the Control panel to show the Paragraph panel.


1. Open the Paragraph panel by clicking the Paragraph tab in the Character panel group. Click the double arrow on the left side of the Paragraph panel tab to show more options, if necessary.

The following are the formatting options available in the Paragraph panel.

Image

A. Alignments
B. Left indent
C. First-Line Left Indent
D. Space Before Paragraph
E. Hyphenate
F. Right Indent
G. Space After Paragraph

2. Select the Zoom tool (Image) in the Tools panel, and click twice on the “BUZZ SODA” text at the top of the larger artboard.

3. Select the Type tool (Image), and insert the cursor in the “BUZZ SODA” text. Press Cmd+A (Mac OS) or Ctrl+A (Windows) to select the text.


Image Tip

You will accidentally click with the Type tool and create a type object from time to time and want to get rid of the ones you aren’t using. Illustrator has an easy way to clean up those objects: Object > Path > Clean Up.


4. Click the Align Center button (Image) to center align the text.

Since the text is point type, it appears to jump to the left. Text is aligned according to the leftmost edge of the point type object, by default.

Image

5. Select the Selection tool, and drag the text object into the center of the artboard. Use the figure for placement.

Image

6. Choose View > Fit All In Window.

7. Select the Type tool (Image), and insert the cursor in the threaded text below “BUZZ SODA.” Press Cmd+A (Mac OS) or Ctrl+A (Windows) to select the text.

8. Change the Space After Paragraph to 6 pt in the Paragraph panel.

Setting a spacing value after paragraphs, rather than pressing the Return key, is useful for maintaining consistency and ease of editing later.

Image

9. Leave the Paragraph panel group open for later use.

10. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.

Resizing and reshaping type objects

You can create unique type object shapes by reshaping them using a variety of methods, including adding columns to area type objects or reshaping text objects using the Direct Selection tool.

In this next section, you’ll reshape and resize type objects to better fit text in them.

1. Using the Selection tool (Image), click the text in the right column on the larger artboard to select it. Drag the bottom middle handle down until the text “...We will gladly show you around.” is the last text in the object.

Image

2. Select the Type tool (Image), and click three times on the “Tasting Events” text on the 2 CardBack artboard to select it.

Image


Image Tip

Clicking once in text inserts the cursor. Clicking twice on text selects a word. Clicking three times selects the entire paragraph in Illustrator.


3. Change the Font Size to 20 pt in the Control panel.

4. Select the Selection tool (Image), and click in a blank area of the artboard with the “Tasting Events” text on it to deselect the type areas.

5. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window to fit the 3 CardBack artboard in the Document window.

6. Click the text “Tasting Events” to select the type area. Drag the bottom middle handle of the type area up so that it looks like the figure. There will be overset text (Image) when you are finished.

Image

7. Select the Type tool (Image), and click three times on the text that begins with “We travel all...” to select the paragraph.

8. Change the Font Size to 10 pt in the Control panel.

9. Select the Direct Selection tool (Image). Click the upper-right corner of the type object to select the anchor point. Drag that point to the left to adjust the shape of the path to fit the yellow shape. As you drag, press the Shift key. Release the mouse button and then the Shift key when finished.

Image

Creating columns of text

You can easily create columns and rows of text by using the Type > Area Type Options command. This can be useful for creating a single area type object with multiple columns or for organizing text, such as a table or simple chart, for instance. Next, you’ll add a few columns to the area type object you create.

1. Choose Select > Deselect.

2. Select the Selection tool (Image), and click the text to select the area type object. Click the out port (larger box) in the lower-right corner of the type object that has the red plus sign in it (Image) (circled in the following figure). The pointer changes to a loaded text icon (Image) when you move it away.

3. Click and drag to draw a type area below, roughly in the size of the aqua guide box.

Image

4. With the area type object still selected, choose Type > Area Type Options. In the Area Type Options dialog box, change the Number to 2 in the Columns section, and select Preview. Click OK. The text is now flowing between two columns.

Image


Image Tip

To learn more about the large number of options in the Area Type Options dialog box, search for “Creating Text” in Illustrator Help (Help > Illustrator Help).


5. Drag the bottom middle bounding point up and down to see the text flow between the columns. Drag so that the text in the columns is even (see the previous figure).

6. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.

Modifying text with the Touch Type tool

Using the Touch Type tool (Image), you can modify the properties of a character, such as size, scale, and rotation, using a mouse cursor or touch controls. This is a very visual (and personally more fun) way of applying the character formatting properties: baseline shift, horizontal and vertical scale, rotation, and kerning.

1. Choose 1 Poster from the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

2. Select the Zoom tool (Image), and click the headline “BUZZ SODA” several times to zoom in closely. Make sure you can see all of the “BUZZ SODA” text.

3. With the Selection tool (Image), click to select the “BUZZ SODA” type object.

4. Select the Touch Type tool (Image) by pressing and holding down on the Type tool (Image) in the Tools panel and then selecting the Touch Type tool.

After selecting the Touch Type tool, a message briefly appears at the top of the Document window telling you to click a character to select it.

5. Click the letter “B” in “BUZZ” to select it.

Image


Image Note

You may still see a bounding box around the “BUZZ SODA” text after clicking the letter. The figures in this section do not show it.


A box with a dot above it appears around the letter after you select it. The different points around the box allow you to adjust the character in different ways, as you’ll see.

6. Click and drag the upper-right corner of the box away from the center to make the letter larger. Stop dragging when you see roughly 140% for width (W:) and height (H:) in the measurement label.

Image

Notice that width and height change together proportionally. You just adjusted the horizontal scale and the vertical scale for the letter “B.” If you look in the Character panel you would see that the Horizontal Scale and Vertical Scale values are roughly 140%.

7. Click the “U” to the right of the “B,” and drag the lower-right point of the box to the left until you see an H. Scale (horizontal scale) of approximately 85%.

8. Drag the rotate handle (the circle above the letter “U”) counterclockwise until you see approximately 20° in the measurement label.


Image Tip

You can also nudge a selected letter with the arrow keys or press Shift+arrow key to move the letter in bigger increments.


9. With the letter “U” still selected, position the pointer in the center of the letter. Click and drag the letter to the left and a little down until the Baseline value shows approximately –1 pt in the gray measurement label.

Image

You just visually edited the horizontal scale, rotation, kerning, and baseline shift of the letter “U.”


Image Note

There are limits to how far you can drag in any direction. Those limits are based on the kerning and baseline shift value limits.


10. Click the first “Z” to the right of the “U,” and drag the upper-left point of the box up until you see a V. Scale (vertical scale) of approximately 120%.

11. Drag that same “Z” to the left, closer to the “U.” See the figure for help.

Image


Image Tip

You can always experiment a bit with the letters if you like, just know that they may not match the figures going forward.


12. If the Character panel group is open, close it.

Creating and applying text styles

Styles allow you to format text consistently and are helpful when text attributes need to be updated globally. Once a style is created, you only need to edit the saved style, and then all text formatted with that style is updated.

Illustrator provides two types of text styles.

• Paragraph—Retains character and paragraph attributes and applies them to an entire paragraph.

• Character—Retains character attributes and applies them to selected text.

Creating and applying a paragraph style

First, you will create a paragraph style for the body copy.

1. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window.

2. Select the Type tool (Image) in the Tools panel (it’s under the Touch Type tool [Image]), and insert the cursor anywhere in the first paragraph in the first column of text that starts with “Here at Buzz Soda....”

By inserting the cursor in text when you create a paragraph style, the formatting attributes from the paragraph are saved.

3. Choose Window > Type > Paragraph Styles, and click the Create New Style button (Image) at the bottom of the Paragraph Styles panel.

Image

This creates a new paragraph style in the panel, called “Paragraph Style 1.” This style captures the character and paragraph formatting from the paragraph.

4. Double-click directly on the style name “Paragraph Style 1” in the list of styles. Change the name of the style to Body, and press Enter or Return to edit the name inline.

By double-clicking the style to edit the name, you are also applying the new style to the paragraph (where the cursor is). This means that if you edit the Body paragraph style, this paragraph will update as well.

Image

5. With the Type tool selected, click and drag to select the text in both columns, making sure not to select the text on the 3 CardBack artboard.

6. Click the Body style in the Paragraph Styles panel.

Image

Notice that a plus sign (+) appears to the right of the Body style name. The plus sign indicates that the style has an override. An override is any formatting that doesn’t match the attributes defined by the style, for example, if you changed the font size for the selected paragraph.


Image Note

If you place a Microsoft Word document and choose to keep the formatting, the styles used in the Word document may be brought into the Illustrator document and may appear in the Paragraph Styles panel.


7. Press the Option (Mac OS) or Alt (Windows) key, and select the Body style again in the Paragraph Styles panel to overwrite existing attributes on the selected text.

The plus sign (+) should go away after clicking the “Body” style name with the key held down.

8. Choose Select > Deselect.

Editing a paragraph style

After creating a paragraph style, you can easily edit the style formatting. Then anywhere the style has been applied, the formatting will be updated automatically.

Next, you’ll edit the Body style to see firsthand why you can use paragraph styles to save time and maintain consistency.


Image Tip

You can also choose Paragraph Style Options from the Paragraph Styles panel menu (Image).


1. Double-click to the right of the style name “Body” in the Paragraph Styles panel list to open the Paragraph Style Options dialog box, select the Indents And Spacing category on the left side of the dialog box, and change the following, if necessary:

• Space After: 8 pt

• Add To My Library: Deselected

Image

Since Preview is selected by default, you can move the dialog box out of the way to see the text change everywhere that the Body style is applied.


Image Tip

There are many more options for working with paragraph styles, most of which are found in the Paragraph Styles panel menu, including duplicating, deleting, and editing paragraph styles. To learn more about these options, search for “paragraph styles” in Illustrator Help (Help > Illustrator Help).


2. Click OK.

3. Choose File > Save.

Creating and applying a character style

Character styles, unlike paragraph styles, can be applied only to selected text and can contain only character formatting. Next, you will create a character style from text styling within the columns of text.

1. Choose View > Zoom In, twice, to zoom into the threaded text in the center.

2. Using the Type tool (Image), in the first column, select Buzz Soda.

3. Change the Fill color to the swatch named “BuzzBrown” in the Control panel.


Image Note

If you chose a font other than Adelle Sans and don’t see Italic, try choosing another font style.


4. Click the word “Character” in the Control panel, click the Underline button (Image) to underline the text. Choose Italic from the Font Style menu.

Image

5. In the Paragraph Styles panel group, click the Character Styles panel tab.

6. In the Character Styles panel, Option-click (Mac OS) or Alt-click (Windows) the Create New Style button (Image) at the bottom of the Character Styles panel.

Option-clicking (Mac OS) or Alt-clicking (Windows) the Create New Style button in the Character or Paragraph Styles panel allows you to edit the style options before it is added to the panel.

7. In the Character Styles Options dialog box, change the following options:

• Style Name: Emphasis

• Add To My Library: Deselected

Image

8. Click OK.

The style records the attributes applied to your selected text.


Image Note

If you apply the character style and a plus appears next to the style name, you can Option-click (Mac OS) or Alt-click (Windows) the style name to apply it.


9. With the text still selected, click the style named “Emphasis” in the Character Styles panel to assign the style to that text so that it will update if the style formatting changes.

10. In the next column (text object), anytime you see the text “Buzz Soda,” select it, and click the Emphasis style in the Character Styles panel to apply it.


Image Note

You must select the entire phrase rather than just placing the cursor in the text.


11. Choose Select > Deselect.

Editing a character style

After creating a character style, you can easily edit the style formatting, and, anywhere the style is applied, the formatting will be updated automatically.

1. Double-click to the right of the Emphasis style name in the Character Styles panel (not the style name itself). In the Character Style Options dialog box, click the Basic Character Formats category on the left side of the dialog box, and change the following:

• Choose Regular from the Font Style menu

• Add To My Library: Deselected

• Preview: Selected

Image


Image Note

If the Font Family field is blank, choose Adelle Sans (or the font you chose), and then you can select a font style.


2. Click OK.

Sampling text formatting

Using the Eyedropper tool (Image), you can quickly sample type attributes and copy them to text without creating a style.

1. Using the Type tool (Image), select the text “Raleigh, NC USA” toward the bottom of the second column of text. You may need to scroll in the Document window.

2. Select the Eyedropper tool (Image) in the Tools panel, and click in any “Buzz Soda” text (they all are gold and underlined) when a letter “T” appears above the Eyedropper pointer.

This applies the Emphasis character style (and its formatting) to your selected text.

Image

3. Choose Select > Deselect, and then click the style named [Normal Character Style] in the Character Styles panel. Close the Character Styles panel group.


Image Note

Clicking [Normal Character Style] ensures that any new text you add to the document will not have the style named “Emphasis” applied.


Wrapping text

In Illustrator, you can easily wrap text around objects, such as type objects, imported images, and vector artwork, to avoid text running over those objects or to create interesting design effects. Next, you’ll wrap text around part of the artwork. In Illustrator, like InDesign, you apply text wrap to the content that the text will wrap around.

1. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window.

2. Select the Selection tool (Image), and click the yellow “beehive” shape under the bees in the lower-left corner of the artboard.

3. Choose Object > Text Wrap > Make. Click OK if a dialog box appears.

To wrap text around an object, the object that the text is to wrap around must be in the same layer as the text and must be located above the text in the layer hierarchy.

Image

4. With the yellow shape still selected, choose Object > Arrange > Bring To Front.

The text should now be wrapping around that yellow shape.

Image

5. Choose Object > Text Wrap > Text Wrap Options. In the Text Wrap Options dialog box, change Offset to 15 pt, and select Preview to see the change. Click OK.

Image

6. With the Selection tool (Image) selected, click the second column of text and drag the bottom middle point down to make sure that the text “We will gladly show you around.” is the last showing.

Image


Image Note

Your text may wrap differently, and that’s okay.


Warping text

You can create some great design effects by warping text into different shapes using envelopes. You can make an envelope out of an object on your artboard, or you can use a preset warp shape or a mesh grid as an envelope. As you explore warping with envelopes, you’ll also discover that you can use envelopes on any object except graphs, guides, or linked objects.


Image Tip

There are several additional ways to warp content like text, including with a mesh and with an object you create. To learn more about these other methods, search for “Reshape using envelopes” in Illustrator Help (Help > Illustrator Help).


Reshaping text with a preset envelope warp

Illustrator comes with a series of preset warp shapes that you can warp text with. Next, you’ll apply one of the preset warp shapes that Illustrator provides.

1. Choose 2 CardFront from the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

2. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window, if necessary.

3. With the Type tool (Image), select the word “BUZZ,” and change the Font Size to 92 pt in the Control panel.

4. Choose Type > Change Case > UPPERCASE to change the case of the word.

5. Select the words “Soda Co,” and change the Font Size to 62 pt in the Control panel.

Image

6. Select the Selection tool (Image), and make sure that the text object is selected. Click the Make Envelope button (Image) in the Control panel (not the arrow to the right of the button).


Image Note

The same visual result can be achieved by choosing Object > Envelope Distort > Make With Warp. For more information about envelopes, see “Reshape using envelopes” in Illustrator Help (Help > Illustrator Help).


7. In the Warp Options dialog box that appears, select Preview. The text appears as an arc, by default. Make sure Arc is chosen in the Style menu. Drag the Bend, Horizontal, and Vertical Distortion sliders to see the effect on the text. When you are finished experimenting, drag both Distortion sliders to 0%, make sure that the Bend is 24%, and then click OK.

Image

Editing the envelope warp

If you want to make any changes, you can edit the text and shape that make up the envelope warp object separately. Next, you will edit the text and then the warp shape.

1. With the envelope object still selected, click the Edit Contents button (Image) on the left end of the Control panel. This is one way you can edit the text in the warped shape.

2. Using the Type tool (Image), position the cursor over the warped text. Notice that the unwarped text appears in blue. Insert the cursor in the words “Soda Co,” and click three times to select those words.

Image


Image Tip

If you double-click with the Selection tool instead of with the Type tool, you enter Isolation mode. This is another way to edit the text within the envelope warp object. Press the Escape key to exit Isolation mode if that is the case.


3. In the Character panel (Window > Type > Character). Change Leading to 50 pt.

Image

You can also edit the preset shape, which is what you’ll do next.

4. Select the Selection tool (Image), and make sure that the envelope object is still selected. Click the Edit Envelope button (Image) in the Control panel.


Image Note

Changing the warp style will most likely move the warp object on the artboard.


Notice the options for the envelope warp object in the Control panel. You can choose another warp shape from the Style menu and then change the warp options, like Horizontal, Vertical, and Bend. These are the same options you saw in the Warp Options dialog box when you first created the envelope warp.


Image Tip

To take the text out of the warped shape, select the text with the Selection tool, and choose Object > Envelope Distort > Release. This gives you two objects: the type object and an arc upper shape.


5. Change Bend to 12% in the Control panel. Make sure that H (horizontal) Distortion is 0 and V (vertical) Distortion is 0.

Image

6. With the Selection tool, drag the envelope object (warped text) into the approximate center of the yellow shape. Make sure to closely match the vertical position you see in the figure. In the next section, you are going to add text to the dotted path beneath the text.

Image

Working with type on a path

In addition to having text in point and type areas, you can have type along a path. Text can flow along the edge of an open or closed path and can lead to some really creative ways to display text.

Creating type on a path

In this section, you’ll add some text to an open path.

1. With the Selection tool (Image), select the dashed curved path next to the bee.

2. Choose Edit > Copy, and then choose Edit > Paste In Front to paste a copy of the path directly on top of the original.

3. With the Type tool (Image), position the cursor over the middle of the path to see an insertion point with an intersecting wavy path (Image) (see the figure). Click when this cursor appears.

The text starts where you click the path. Also, the stroke attributes of the path change to None (which is why you copied the line), and a cursor appears.

Image

4. Choose Window > Type > Paragraph Styles to open the panel. Option-click (Mac OS) or Alt-click (Windows) [Normal Paragraph Style] to apply the style.

5. Type the text Honey Infused Natural Sodas. Note that the new text follows the path.

Image


Image Note

If the text is brown and underlined, it means that the character style is applied. Select the text and Option-click (Mac OS) or Alt-click (Windows) [Normal Character Style] in the Character Styles panel.


6. With the Type tool, click three times on the new text to select it.

7. Change Font Size to 18 pt in the Control panel.

8. Change the Fill color to BuzzBrown in the Control panel.

Next, you’ll reposition the text on the path so that all of the text appears.

Image

9. Select the Selection tool, and position the pointer over the line on the left edge of the text (just to the left of the “H” in “Honey”). When you see this cursor (Image), click and drag to the right—just a bit. Use the figure as a guide.

Image


Image Tip

With the path or the text on the path selected, you can choose Type > Type On A Path > Type On A Path Options to set more options.


From where you click a path to the end of the path is where the text can flow. If you align the text left, center, or right, it’s aligned within that area on the path.

10. Choose Select > Deselect, and then choose File > Save.

Creating type on a closed path

Next, you will add text around a circle.

1. Choose 1 Poster from the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.

2. Select the Zoom tool (Image) in the Tools panel, and click the green circle in the lower-right corner of the artboard three times to zoom in.

3. Select the Type tool (Image), and position the pointer over the edge of the white circle. The Type cursor (Image) changes to a Type cursor with a circle (Image). This indicates that if you click (don’t click), text will be placed inside of the circle, creating a type object in the shape of a circle.

Instead of adding text to the inside of a shape, we want to add text to the path, which is what you’ll do next.

4. While pressing the Option (Mac OS) or Alt (Windows) key, position the pointer over the left side of the white circle with black stroke (use the figure as a guide). The insertion point with an intersecting wavy path (Image) appears. Click and type CERTIFIED ORGANIC. If you accidentally click on the leaf, choose Edit > Undo Type and try again.

Image


Image Note

Instead of pressing the Option (Mac OS) or Alt (Windows) key to allow the Type tool to type on a path, you can select the Type On A Path tool (Image) by holding down the Type tool in the Tools panel.


5. Click three times on the text to select it. Change the font size to 12 pt, the font to Adelle Sans Regular (if it isn’t already), and the Fill color to the swatch named BuzzBrown.

Next, you’ll edit the type on a path options for the text on the circle.

Image

6. Select the Selection tool (Image) in the Tools panel. With the path type object selected, choose Type > Type On A Path > Type On A Path Options. In the Type On A Path Options dialog box, select Preview, and change the following options:

• Effect: Rainbow.

• Align To Path: Ascender

• Spacing: –11 pt

Image


Image Note

To learn about the Type On A Path options like “Flip,” search for “Creating type on a path” in Illustrator Help (Help > Illustrator Help).


7. Click OK.

8. Position the pointer over the line on the left end of the word “CERTIFIED.” That line you see is called a bracket. When you see this cursor (Image), with an arrow pointing to the right, drag up around the circle just a little in a clockwise fashion. See the figure for position.

Image


Image Note

Brackets appear at the beginning of the type, at the end of the path, and at the midpoint between the start and end brackets. All of these brackets can be adjusted to reposition the text in the path.


9. Drag across the leaf, text on a path, and green circle to select them all. Drag the leaf (which drags all three objects) down away from the column of text so that they aren’t touching, if necessary.

Creating text outlines

Converting text to outlines means converting text into vector shapes that you can edit and manipulate as you would any other graphic object. Text outlines are useful for changing the look of large display type, but they are rarely useful for body text or other type at small sizes. The file recipient doesn’t need to have your fonts installed to open and view the file correctly if you convert all text to outlines.

When you create outlines from text, you should consider that text is no longer editable. Also, bitmap fonts and outline-protected fonts cannot be converted to outlines, and outlining text that is less than 10 points in size is not recommended. When type is converted to outlines, the type loses itshints—instructions built into outline fonts to adjust their shape to display or print optimally at many sizes. You must also convert all type in a selection to outlines; you cannot convert a single letter within a type object.

Next, you will convert the main heading to outlines and position content.

1. Choose View > Fit Artboard In Window.

2. With the Selection tool (Image) selected, click the heading text “BUZZ SODA” at the top of the artboard to select it.


Image Note

The original text is still there; it’s just hidden. This way, you can always choose Object > Show All to see the original text if you need to make changes.


3. Choose Edit > Copy, and then choose Object > Hide > Selection.

4. Choose Edit > Paste In Front.

5. Choose Type > Create Outlines. Drag it into position like you see in the figure (if it’s not already there).

The text is no longer linked to a particular font. Instead, it is now artwork, much like any other vector art in your illustration.

Image

6. Choose View > Guides > Hide Guides, and then choose Select > Deselect.

7. Choose View > Fit All In Window to take a look at what you’ve created.

Image

8. Choose File > Save, and then choose File > Close.

Review questions

1. Name two methods for creating text in Adobe Illustrator.

2. What does the Touch Type tool (Image) let you do?

3. What is overflow text?

4. What is text threading?

5. What is the difference between a character style and a paragraph style?

6. What is the advantage of converting text to outlines?

Review answers

1. The following methods can be used for creating text areas:

• With the Type tool (Image), click the artboard and start typing when the cursor appears. A point type object is created to accommodate the text.

• With the Type tool, drag to create a text area. Type when a cursor appears.

• With the Type tool, click a path or closed shape to convert it to text on a path, or click in a text area. Option-clicking (Mac OS) or Alt-clicking (Windows) when crossing over the stroke of a closed path creates text around the shape.

2. The Touch Type tool (Image) allows you to visually edit certain character formatting options for individual characters in text. You can edit the character rotation, kerning, baseline shift, and horizontal and vertical scale of text and the text remains editable.

3. Overflow text is text that does not fit within an area type object or path. A red plus sign (Image) in an out port indicates that the object contains additional text.

4. Text threading allows you to flow text from one object to another by linking type objects. Linked type objects can be of any shape; however, the text must be entered in an area or along a path (not at a point).

5. A character style can be applied to selected text only. A paragraph style is applied to an entire paragraph. Paragraph styles are best for indents, margins, and line spacing.

6. Converting text to outlines eliminates the need to send the fonts along with the Illustrator file when sharing with others and makes it possible to add effects to type that aren’t possible when the type is still editable (live).