Adobe Premiere Pro CC (2016)
8. Advanced Editing Techniques
In this lesson, you’ll learn about the following:
• Performing a four-point edit
• Changing the speed or duration of clips in your Timeline
• Replacing a clip in your Timeline
• Replacing footage in a project
• Creating a nested sequence
• Performing basic trimming on media to refine edits
• Applying slip and slide edits to refine your edit
• Dynamically trimming clips
This lesson will take approximately 90 minutes.
The main editing commands in Adobe Premiere Pro CC are easy to master. Some advanced techniques take time to learn, but they are worth it! These techniques accelerate editing and provide the understanding you’ll need to produce the highest-level professional results.
In this lesson, you’ll use several short sequences to explore advanced editing concepts in Adobe Premiere Pro CC. The goal is to get hands-on with the techniques you’ll need for advanced editing.
1. Start Premiere Pro and open the project Lesson 08.prproj.
Open the sequence 01 Four Point.
2. Choose Editing in the Workspaces panel, or go to Window > Workspaces > Editing.
Reset the workspace to the saved version by clicking the Editing menu in the Workspaces panel or by choosing Window > Workspaces > Reset to Saved Layout.
Performing four-point editing
In and Out marks are also referred to as points. In previous lessons, you used the standard technique of three-point editing. You used three In and Out points (split between the Source Monitor as well as the Program Monitor or Timeline) to describe the source, duration, and location of an edit.
Professional editors often use different language to describe the same thing. This book uses the most common names used by editors so you’ll recognize tools, techniques, and other items more easily.
But what happens if you have four marks defined?
The short answer is that you have to make a choice. It’s likely that the duration you’ve marked in the Source Monitor differs from the duration you’ve marked in the Program Monitor or on the Timeline.
In this case, when you attempt to perform the edit using a keyboard shortcut or onscreen button, a dialog box warns you about the discrepancy and asks you to make a decision, most commonly to discard one of the marks.
Editing options for four-point edits
If you perform a four-point edit, Premiere Pro opens the Fit Clip dialog to alert you to the problem. You’ll need to choose from five options to resolve the conflict. You can ignore one of the four points or change the speed of the clip.
• Change Clip Speed (Fit to Fill): The first choice assumes that you set four points deliberately. Premiere Pro preserves the source clip’s In and Out points but adjusts its playback speed to match the duration you have set with In and Out points on the Timeline or in the Program Monitor. This is an excellent choice if you want to adjust clip playback speed to fill a gap.
• Ignore Source In Point: If you choose this option, Premiere Pro ignores the source clip’s In point, converting your edit back to a three-point edit. When you have an Out point and no In point in the Source Monitor, the In point is worked out based on the duration set in the Timeline or Program Monitor (or the end of the clip). This option is available only if the source clip is longer than the range set in the sequence.
• Ignore Source Out Point: When you select this option, Premiere Pro ignores the source clip’s Out point, converting your edit back to a three-point edit. When you have an In point and no Out point in the Source Monitor, the In point is worked out based on the duration set in the Timeline or Program Monitor (or the end of the clip). This option is available only if the source clip is longer than the targeted duration.
• Ignore Sequence In Point: This choice tells Premiere Pro to ignore the In point you’ve set in the sequence and perform a three-point edit using only the sequence Out point. The duration is taken from the Source Monitor.
• Ignore Sequence Out Point: This option is similar to the previous one. It tells Premiere Pro to ignore the Out point in the sequence you set and perform a three-point edit. Again, the duration is taken from the Source Monitor.
Making a four-point edit
Let’s make a four-point edit. You’ll change the duration of the clip to match the duration set in the sequence.
1. If it’s not loaded already, open the sequence 01 Four Point.
You’ll cut a new shot into this rough cut. The clip you’ll use is a different duration from the gap to be filled.
2. Scroll through the sequence and locate the section with In and Out points already set. You should see a highlighted range in the Timeline.
3. Locate the bin called Clips to Load and open the clip called Desert New in the Source Monitor.
Clip In and Out points should already be set on this clip.
4. In the Timeline, check that the Source Track Selection buttons are patched with Source V1 linked to Timeline Video 1.
5. In the Source Monitor, click the Overwrite button to make the edit.
6. In the Fit Clip dialog box, choose the Change Clip Speed (Fit to Fill) option and click OK.
You can choose to set a default behavior when a four-point edit occurs by making a selection and selecting Always Use This Choice. If you change your mind, open the Premiere Pro General Preferences and select Fit Clip. The Fit Clip dialog box opens for edit range mismatches.
The edit is applied. On the Desert New clip in the sequence, you’ll see numbers that show the new playback speed. The speed has been adjusted perfectly to fit the new duration.
7. Watch the sequence now to see the effects of your edit and the speed change.
Changing playback speed
Slow motion is one of the most commonly used effects in video production. You might change the speed of a clip for technical reasons or for artistic impact. It can be an effective way to add drama or to give the audience more time to experience a moment.
A Fit to Fill edit is just one way to change clip playback speed. The best way to achieve high-quality slow motion is usually to record at a higher frame rate than your sequence playback frame rate. If you play the video at a slower frame rate than it was recorded at, you’ll see slow motion.
For example, imagine a 10-second video clip was recorded at 48 frames per second but your sequence is set to 24 frames per second. You can set your footage to play at 24 frames per second, matching the sequence. Playback will be smooth, with no frame rate conversion when the clip is added to the sequence. However, the clip will be playing at half its original frame rate, resulting in 50% slow motion. It will also take twice as long to play back, so the clip will now have a 20-second duration.
Let’s try this.
1. Open the sequence 02 Laura In The Snow. Play the clip in the sequence.
The clip plays in slow motion for the following reasons:
• The clip was recorded at 96 frames per second.
• The clip is set to play back at 24 frames per second (this was set by the camera).
• The sequence is configured for 24 frames per second playback.
2. In the Project panel, look in the Clips to Load bin for the Laura_01.mp4 clip. Right-click this clip and choose Modify > Interpret Footage.
Use the Interpret Footage dialog box to tell Premiere Pro how to play back clips.
3. Select the “Assume this frame rate” option and enter the number 96 in the box. This tells Premiere Pro to play the clip at 96 frames per second.
Look back at the Timeline. The clip has changed appearance.
Diagonal lines on a clip indicate absent media.
You have given the clip a faster frame rate, so the original clip duration is no longer used. Diagonal lines indicate a portion of a clip that has no media.
Premiere Pro does not change the duration of the Timeline clip because doing so might change the timing of your edit.
4. Play the sequence again.
The clip plays at regular speed because it was originally recorded at 96 frames per second. It’s much less smooth.
5. Drag the Laura_01.mp4 clip onto the Timeline next to the first instance.
If you’re using a system with slow storage, you may need to lower the playback resolution in the Program Monitor to see the playback at the full frame rate.
The new clip instance is shorter and matches the total playback time at the new frame rate. If you slow down the playback speed of the clip now, it will retain all the original frames, giving better-quality slow motion.
This technique is often called over-cranking because early film cameras were driven by turning a crank handle.
The faster the handle was turned, the more frames per second captured. Slower turning would capture fewer frames per second. This way, when the film was played back at a regular speed, filmmakers would achieve fast motion or slow motion.
Modern cameras often allow recording at faster frame rates to provide excellent-quality slow motion in post-production. The camera will assign a frame rate to the clip that might differ from the actual recorded rate (the system frame rate is used).
This means clips may play in slow motion automatically when you import them into Premiere Pro. Use the Interpret Footage dialog box to tell Premiere Pro how to play clips.
Changing the speed/duration of a clip
Although it’s more common to slow clips down, speeding up clips is a useful effect as well. The Speed/Duration command can change the playback speed for a clip in two different ways. You can set the duration of a clip to match a certain time, or you can set the playback speed as a percentage.
For example, if you set a clip to play at 50% speed, it will play back at half-speed; 25% would be one quarter speed. Premiere Pro allows you to set playback speeds up to two decimal places, so you could have 27.13% if you wanted.
Let’s explore this technique.
1. Open the sequence 03 Speed and Duration. Play the sequence to get a sense of normal playback speed.
2. Right-click the Eagle_Walk clip and choose Speed/Duration. You can also select the clip in the Timeline and choose Clip > Speed/Duration.
3. The Clip Speed/Duration dialog box gives you several options for controlling clip playback speed.
• If you click the chain icon, you can toggle on and off keeping the clip duration and speed ganged together. If this is on, changing one updates the other.
• Click the link icon so that it shows a broken link. Now, if you enter a new speed, the duration won’t update, with one exception: If a new, higher speed reduces the duration so much that all the original clip media is used and the result is shorter than the Timeline clip, then the Timeline clip will shorten to fit. This way, you won’t have blank video frames in your sequence.
• Once the settings are unganged, you can also change duration without changing speed. If there’s another clip immediately after this one on the Timeline, shortening a clip will leave a gap. By default, if you make the clip longer than the space available, the speed change will have no effect. That’s because the clip can’t move the next clip to make room for the new duration when you change these settings. If you select the Ripple Edit, Shifting Trailing Clips option, you’ll enable the clip to make space for itself.
• To play a clip backward, select the Reverse Speed option. You’ll see a negative symbol next to the new speed displayed in the sequence.
• If you’re changing the speed of a clip that has audio, consider selecting the Maintain Audio Pitch check box. This will keep the clip’s original pitch at the new speed. With this option disabled, the pitch will naturally go up or down. This option is really effective for small speed changes; dramatic resampling can produce unnatural results.
4. Make sure Speed and Duration are linked (with the chain icon on), change the speed to 50%, and click OK.
Play the clip in the Timeline. You may need to render the clip by pressing Enter to see smooth playback. Notice that the clip is now 10 seconds long. That’s because you slowed it to 50%: half the playback speed means twice the original length.
The Clip Speed / Duration dialog box shows a Maintain Audio Pitch option if the clip has audio. Selecting this option keeps audio at the original pitch regardless of the speed at which the clip is running. This can be helpful when making small speed adjustments to clips when you want to maintain pitch in the audio or keep a character’s voice at its normal pitch, even as it slows down or speeds up.
5. Choose Edit > Undo or press Control+Z (Windows) or Command+Z (Mac OS).
6. Select the clip on the Timeline and press Control+R (Windows) or Command+R (Mac OS) to open the Clip Speed/Duration dialog box.
7. Click the chain icon to make sure the Speed and Duration settings are unlinked (shown here). Then change Speed to 50%.
8. Click OK; then play the clip.
The clip is now playing at 50% speed, so it should play for twice as long. But because you’ve turned off the link between playback speed and duration, the second half has been trimmed to maintain the five-second duration in the sequence.
Now try reversing playback.
9. Open the Clip Speed / Duration dialog box again.
10. Leave Speed at 50%, but this time select Reverse Speed; then click OK.
11. Play the clip. Now it plays in reverse at 50% slow motion.
You can change the speed of multiple clips at the same time. To do so, select multiple clips and go to the Clip menu to choose Speed/Duration. When you change the speed of multiple clips, be sure to pay attention to the Ripple Edit, Shifting Trailing Clips option. This will automatically close or expand gaps for all the selected clips after the speed change.
Changing speed and duration with the Rate Stretch tool
Sometimes you’ll have a clip that has perfect content to fill a gap in your sequence but it is just a little too short or a little too long. This is where the Rate Stretch tool helps.
1. Open the sequence 04 Rate Stretch.
This sequence is synchronized to music, and the clips contain the content you want, but the first clip is too short. You can make a guess and try to make an exact Speed/Duration adjustment, but it’s easier and faster to use the Rate Stretch tool to drag the end of the clip to fill the gap.
2. Select the Rate Stretch tool () in the Tools panel.
3. Using this tool, drag the right edge of the first video clip until it meets the second video clip.
If you change your mind about a change made with the Rate Stretch tool, you can always use it to stretch a clip back. Alternatively, you can use the Speed/Duration command and enter a Speed value of 100% to restore the clip to its default speed.
The speed of the clip changes to fill the gap. The contents haven’t changed; the clip is playing more slowly.
4. Drag the right edge of the second clip until it meets the third clip.
5. Drag the right edge of the third clip until it matches the end of the audio.
6. Play the Timeline to view the result.
7. Press the V key or click the Selection tool to select it.
Changing speed and duration with time remapping
Time remapping lets you vary the speed of a clip using keyframes. This means one portion of a clip could play in slow motion while another portion of the same clip plays in fast motion.
In addition to giving you flexibility, variable-speed time remapping allows you to smoothly transition from one speed to another, whether from fast to slow or from forward motion to reverse motion.
1. Open the sequence 05 Remapping.
This sequence has a single shot.
2. Adjust the height of the Video 1 track. To do this, position the Selection tool in the track header, over the horizontal divider between the audio and video tracks, and drag down to make more room for the video tracks. Then, click in the header between the Video 1 track and Video 2 track and drag up.
You can also change track height by positioning the mouse cursor over the track header and scrolling.
Increasing track height makes adjusting Timeline clip keyframes easier.
3. Right-click the Fx badge on the clip and choose Show Clip Keyframes > Time Remapping > Speed.
By default, Premiere Pro does not display video clip keyframes. You can enable them by clicking the Timeline settings menu and choosing Show Video Keyframes.
With this option selected, the white line across the clip represents the playback speed. The higher the line is set, the faster the clip will play.
4. Drag the Timeline playhead to the point where the villain turns and starts walking across the room (about 00:00:10:00).
5. Press and hold the Control (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) key as you hover your mouse over the white line.
The pointer turns to a small plus (+) symbol.
6. Click the white line around 10 seconds into the clip to create a keyframe, visible at the top of the clip.
You’re not changing the speed yet; you’re just adding keyframes.
7. Using the same technique, add another speed keyframe at about 00:00:17:00, just as the villain points to the wall.
By adding those two speed keyframes, you’ve divided the clip into three “speed sections.” Now you’ll set different speeds between the keyframes.
8. Position the Selection tool over the white line between the first and second keyframes, and drag it down to approximately 30%. A tool tip will appear to show you the speed setting as you adjust it.
To remove a time-remapping effect, select the clip and view the Effect Controls panel. Click the disclosure triangle next to the Time Remapping effect to open it. Click the toggle animation button (stopwatch) next to the word Speed. This sets it to the off position. A warning dialog box appears. Click OK to remove the effect.
The clip stretches in length to accommodate the speed change.
9. Choose Sequence > Render Effects In to Out to render the clip for the smoothest playback. If you have the Timeline Work Area option enabled, this menu option changes to Sequence > Render Effects in Work Area.
10. Play the clip. The speed changes from 100% to 30% and back to 100% at the end.
Variable-clip speed changes can be dramatic. So far, you have applied a speed change that switches from one speed to another instantly. That can be highly effective, but it’s also possible to smoothly transition from one speed to another.
11. Speed keyframes are actually in two halves. You can drag to separate them. Try it now: Drag the right half of the first speed keyframe to the right to create a speed transition ramp.
The white line ramps down now, rather than making a sudden change from 100% to 30%.
12. Drag the left half of the second speed keyframe to the left to create a transition there as well.
With a Speed keyframe selected, you can drag the blue Bezier handles to improve the ramping to further smooth out the transition.
13. Right-click the video clip and choose Frame Blend. This smooths playback when changing clip speed.
14. Render and play the sequence to see the effect.
If you have difficulties setting the speed keyframes, open the 05 Remapping Complete sequence to see the completed process.
Recognizing the downstream effects of changing time
If you change the speed of a clip at the beginning of the Timeline after assembling many clips in your sequence, it’s important to understand the way this will affect the rest of the sequence “downstream.” You might cause the following:
• Unwanted gaps caused by clips growing shorter because they are playing faster than they did originally.
• Unwanted duration changes to the overall sequence because of the Ripple Edit option.
• Potential audio problems created by changes in speed—including changing pitch.
• If you use Time Remapping, clip audio is not affected, which means you’ll need to work on the audio timing separately.
When you’re making speed or duration changes, be careful to view the overall impact on the sequence. You may want to change the zoom level of the Timeline to view the entire sequence or segment at once.
Replacing clips and footage
During the editing process, it’s common to swap one clip in a sequence for another as you try different versions of an edit.
This might mean making a global replacement, such as replacing one version of an animated logo with a newer file. You might also want to swap out one clip in your sequence for another that you have in a bin. Depending on the task at hand, you’ll use different methods.
Dragging in a replacement clip
You can drag a new shot onto the existing sequence clip you’d like to replace.
Let’s try it.
1. Open the 06 Replace Clip sequence.
2. Play back the Timeline.
Notice that the same clip is played twice as a picture-in-picture (PIP) for clips 2 and 3. The clip has some animated motion keyframes that cause it to spin onto the screen and then spin off. You’ll learn how to create these kinds of effects in the next lesson.
You want to replace the first instance of the clip (SHOT4) in the V2 track with a new clip called Boat Replacement. However, you don’t want to have to re-create the effects and animation. This is a perfect scenario for replacing a sequence clip.
3. From the Clips to Load bin, drag the Boat Replacement clip over the first instance of the SHOT4 clip on the Timeline, but don’t release the mouse button yet.
The clip is longer than the existing clip that you intend to replace.
4. Hold the Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) key.
While you’re holding this modifier key, the replacement clip snaps to fit the exact length of the clip it’s replacing. Release the mouse button to replace the clip.
5. Play the Timeline. All the PIP clips have the same effect applied to different footage. The new clip inherits the settings and effects from the clip it replaced. This is a quick and easy way to try different shots in a sequence.
Making a replace edit
When you drag and drop to replace a sequence clip, Premiere Pro synchronizes the first frame (or In point) of the replacement clip with the first visible frame of the clip in the sequence. This is often fine, but what if you need to synchronize a particular moment in the action, such as hands clapping or a door closing?
If you’d like to have more control over a replace edit, you can use the Replace Edit command. This allows you to synchronize a particular frame of the replacement clip with a particular frame of the clip it’s replacing.
1. Open the sequence 07 Replace Edit.
This is the same sequence you previously fixed, but this time you’ll position the replacement clip precisely.
2. Position the playhead in the sequence at approximately 00:00:06:00. The playhead will be the sync point for the edit you are about to perform.
3. Click the first instance of the SHOT4 clip in the sequence to select it.
4. From the Clips to Load bin, open the clip Boat Replacement in the Source Monitor.
5. In the Source Monitor, position the playhead to choose a good piece of action for the replacement. There’s a marker on the clip for guidance.
6. Make sure the Timeline is active, with the first instance of SHOT4.mov selected, and choose Clip > Replace With Clip > From Source Monitor, Match Frame.
The clip is replaced.
7. Play the newly edited sequence to check the edit.
The playhead position in the Source Monitor and Program Monitor was synchronized. The sequence clip duration, effects, and settings are all applied to the replacement clip. This technique can be a huge time-saver!
Using the Replace Footage feature
The Replace Footage feature replaces footage in the Project panel so that the clip links to a different media file. This can be of great benefit when you need to replace a clip that occurs several times in a sequence or in multiple sequences. You might use this to update an animated logo or a piece of music.
When you replace footage in the Project panel, all instances of the clip you replace are changed anywhere the clip was used.
1. Load the sequence 08 Replace Footage.
2. Play the sequence.
Let’s replace the graphic with something more interesting.
3. In the Clips to Load bin, select the clip DRAGON_LOGO.psd in the Project panel.
4. Choose Clip > Replace Footage, or right-click the clip and choose Replace Footage.
5. Navigate to the Lessons/Assets/Graphics folder and choose the DRAGON_LOGO_FIX.psd file. Double-click to select it.
6. Play the Timeline. The graphic has been updated throughout the sequence and project. Even the clip name in the Project panel has updated to match the new file.
The Replace Footage command cannot be undone. To switch back to the original clip, choose Clip > Replace Footage again to navigate to and relink the original file.
A nested sequence is a sequence contained within another sequence. You can break up a long project into more manageable parts by creating separate sequences for each section. Then, you can drag each sequence—with all its clips, graphics, layers, multiple audio/video tracks, and effects—into another, “master” sequence. Nested sequences look and behave like single audio/video clips, but you can edit their contents and see the changes update inside the master sequence.
Nested sequences have many potential uses.
• They simplify editing by allowing you to create complex sequences in separate parts. This can help you avoid running into conflicts or accidentally moving clips and ruining your edit.
• They allow you to apply an effect to a group of clips in a single step.
• They let you reuse sequences as a source in multiple sequences. You can create one intro sequence for a multipart series and add it to each episode. If you need to change the intro sequence, you can do so once and see the results update everywhere it’s nested.
• They allow you to organize your work in the same way you might create subfolders in the Project panel.
• They allow you to apply transitions to a group of clips as a single item.
The Timeline panel has an option in upper-left corner to choose between adding the contents of the sequences () or nesting sequences ().
Adding a nested sequence
One reason to use a nest is to reuse an existing edited sequence. Let’s add an edited opening title into a sequence now.
1. Open the sequence 09 Bike Race and make sure the option is set to nest sequences ().
2. Set an In point at the start of the sequence.
3. Make sure that source track V1 is patched to the Video 1 track in the Timeline.
4. In the Project panel, find the sequence 09A Race Open.
5. While holding the Control (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) key, drag the sequence 09A Race Open into the Program Monitor (rather than the Timeline).
A quick way to create a nested sequence is to drag a sequence from the Project panel into the appropriate track or tracks of the currently active sequence. You can also drag a sequence into the Source Monitor, apply In and Out points, and perform insert and overwrite edits.
This performs an insert edit.
6. Play the 09 Bike Race sequence to see the result.
If you need to make a change to a nested sequence, double-click it and it will open in a new Timeline.
The 09A Race Open sequence is added as a single clip, even though it contains multiple video tracks and audio clips.
Performing regular trimming
You can adjust the length of a clip in a sequence in several ways. This process is generally called trimming. When you trim, you can make the selected part of the original clip shorter or longer. Some trimming types affect a single clip, whereas others adjust the relationship between two adjacent clips.
Trimming in the Source Monitor
If you view a sequence clip in the Source Monitor, you can adjust its In and Out points and the clip will update in the sequence. There are two basic ways of changing existing In and Out points in the Source Monitor.
• Mark new In and Out points: Simply add new In or Out points. Double-click a clip on the Timeline to load it. With the clip loaded, position the playhead and press the I or O key for In or Out. Alternatively, you can use the Mark In and Mark Out buttons at the bottom of the Source Monitor. If the clip has another clip adjacent to it in the Timeline, you can only make it shorter, leaving a gap on the side where you made the trim.
• Drag In and Out points: You can change the In and Out points by dragging them. Simply place your cursor over an In or Out point in the mini Timeline at the bottom of the Source Monitor. The cursor changes into a red-and-black icon, indicating that a trim can be performed. You can drag left or right to change the In or Out point. Once again, if the clip has another clip adjacent to it on the Timeline, you can only make it shorter, and a gap will appear after making a trim.
Trimming in a sequence
Another, faster way to trim clips is directly on the Timeline. Making a single clip shorter or longer is called a regular trim, and it’s fairly easy.
Remember, you can reduce the playback resolution in the Program Monitor if your system struggles to play high-resolution clips.
1. Open the sequence 10 Regular Trim.
2. Play the sequence.
The last shot is cut off, and it needs to be extended to match the end of the music.
A regular trim is also referred to as a single-sided or overwrite trim.
3. Choose the Selection tool (V).
4. Position the mouse cursor over the Out point of the last clip in the sequence.
Music: “Reverie (small theme),” by _ghost (http://ccmixter.org/files/_ghost/25389)
The pointer changes into the red Trim In tool (head side) or Trim Out tool (tail side) with directional arrows. Hovering the mouse over the edge of the clip changes it between trimming the Out point (open to the left) or In point (open to the right) of a clip.
5. Drag an edge to the right until it meets the end of the audio file.
If you make a clip shorter, it will leave a gap between it and any adjacent clips. Later in this lesson you’ll learn to use the Ripple Edit tool to automatically remove any gaps or push clips later to avoid overwriting them.
A tool tip shows you how much you’ve trimmed.
6. Release the mouse button to make the edit.
Performing advanced trimming
The trimming methods you’ve learned so far have their limitations. They can leave unwanted gaps in the Timeline caused by shortening a clip. They can also prevent you from lengthening a shot if there’s an adjacent clip.
Fortunately, Premiere Pro offers several more ways of trimming.
Making ripple edits
You can avoid creating gaps when trimming by using the Ripple Edit tool (), one of the tools in the Tools panel.
You use the Ripple Edit tool to trim a clip in the same way you used the Selection tool. When you use the Ripple Edit tool to change the duration of a clip, the adjustment ripples through the sequence. That is, clips after the clip you adjust slide to the left to fill the gap, or they slide to the right to make room for the longer clip.
Let’s try it.
1. Open the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.
2. Select the Ripple Edit tool (or press B on your keyboard).
3. Hover the Ripple Edit tool over the inside-right edge of the seventh clip (SHOT7) until it turns into a yellow, left-facing bracket and arrow.
When performing a ripple edit, you can knock items on other tracks out of sync. Use the sync locks with care when ripple trimming.
The shot is too short, so let’s add some more footage from the clip.
4. Drag to the right until the timecode in the tool tip reads +00:00:01:10.
Notice that while you’re using the Ripple Edit tool, the Program Monitor displays the last frame of the first clip on the left and the first frame of the second clip on the right. Watch the moving edit position on the left half of the Program Monitor.
5. Release the mouse button to complete the edit.
The clip expands, and the clip to its right slides along with it. Play that portion of the sequence to see whether the edit works smoothly. The edit has exposed a slight on-camera shake that you’ll work on next.
You can temporarily use the Selection tool as a Ripple Edit tool by holding Control (Windows) or Command (Mac OS).
Making rolling edits
When you used the Ripple Edit tool, it made changes to the overall length of the sequence. This is because one clip got longer or shorter while the rest of the sequence moved to close the gap (or move out of the way).
There’s another way to change the location of an edit: a rolling edit.
With a rolling edit, the overall length of the sequence does not change. Instead, a rolling edit shortens one clip and lengthens another at the same time, simultaneously adjusting them by the same number of frames.
A rolling edit trim is sometimes referred to as a double-roller or dual-roller trim.
For example, if you use the Rolling Edit tool to extend a clip by two seconds, you will also shorten the adjacent clip by two seconds.
1. Continue working with the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.
Several clips are already on the Timeline, with enough leftover handle frames to allow the edits you’re about to perform.
2. Select the Rolling Edit tool (keyboard shortcut N) () in the Tools panel.
When trimming, it’s possible to trim a clip to a zero duration (removing it from the Timeline).
3. Drag the edit point between SHOT7 and SHOT8 (the last two clips on the Timeline). Use the Program Monitor split screen to find a better matching edit between the two shots. Drag left to remove the camera shake.
Try rolling the edit to the left to 00:17 (17 frames). You can use the Program Monitor timecode or the pop-up timecode in the Timeline to find that edit.
Zoom in to the Timeline to make more accurate adjustments.
Making sliding edits
The slide edit is a special kind of trim. It’s not used often but can be a time-saver in some situations. The Slide tool works by leaving the duration of the clip you’re sliding unchanged. Instead, the Out point of the clip to the left and the In point of the clip to the right are changed by equal amounts, in opposite directions. It’s another form of dual-roller trim.
Because you’re changing the other clip durations by an equal number of frames, the length of the sequence doesn’t change.
1. Continue working with the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.
2. Select the Slide tool (U) ().
3. Position the Slide tool over the middle of the second clip in the sequence, SHOT2.
4. Drag the clip left or right.
5. Take a look at the Program Monitor as you perform the slide edit.
The Slide tool moves a clip over two adjacent clips.
The two top images are the In point and Out point of SHOT2. They do not change. The two larger images are the Out point and In point of the previous and next clips. These edit points change as you slide the selected clip over those adjacent clips.
Making slip edits
A slip trim changes the In point and Out point of a sequence clip at the same time, by the same amount, rolling the visible contents in position. Because a slip trim changes the beginning and end by equal amounts, it doesn’t change the duration of your sequence. In this respect, it’s the same as rolling trims and slide trims.
Slip trims change only the clip you select, so adjacent clips before or after the clip you adjust are not affected. Using the Slip tool to adjust a clip is a little like moving a conveyor belt: The visible part of the original clip changes inside the Timeline clip segment without changing the length of the clip or the sequence.
1. Continue working with the sequence 11 Ripple Edit.
2. Select the Slip tool (Y) ().
3. Drag SHOT5 left and right.
4. Take a look at the Program Monitor while you perform the slip edit.
The Slip tool changes the contents of a clip in position.
The two top images are the Out point and In point of SHOT4 and SHOT6, before and after the clip you are adjusting; they don’t change. The two larger images are the In point and Out point of SHOT5; these edit points do change.
Trimming in the Program Monitor
If you’d like to trim with more control, you can use the Program Monitor Trim mode. This allows you to see both the outgoing and incoming frames of the trim you’re working on and has dedicated buttons for making precise adjustments.
Whenever you have a trim handle selected, including when the Program Monitor is set to Trim view, playback loops appear around the edit you have selected until you stop playback. This means you can continually adjust the timing of an edit and view the result immediately.
You can perform three types of trim using the Program Monitor Trim mode controls. You learned about each of these earlier in this lesson.
• Regular trim: This basic type of trim moves the edge of the selected clip. This method trims only one side of the edit point. It moves the selected edit point either forward or backward in the Timeline, but it doesn’t shift any of the other clips.
• Roll trim: The roll trim moves the tail of one clip and the head of the adjacent clip. It lets you adjust an edit point (provided there are handles). No gap is created, and the sequence duration doesn’t change.
• Ripple trim: This moves the selected edge of the edit either earlier or later. Clips after the edit shift to close a gap or make room for a longer clip.
Using Trim mode in the Program Monitor
When you’re in Trim mode, some of the Program Monitor controls change to make it easier to focus on trimming. To use Trim mode, you need to activate it by selecting an edit point between two clips. There are three ways to do this.
• Double-click an edit point on the Timeline with a selection tool or trimming tool.
• Press the T key. The playhead will move to the nearest edit point, and Trim mode will open in the Program Monitor.
• Drag around one or more edits using the Ripple Edit tool or Rolling Edit tool to select them and open the Program Monitor to Trim mode.
You can use the Selection tool with the Control (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) key as a shortcut to the Ripple Edit tool or Rolling Edit tool.
When invoked, Trim mode shows two video clips. The box on the left shows the outgoing clip (also called A side). The box on the right shows the incoming clip (also called B side). Below the frames are five buttons and two indicators.
A Out Shift counter: This shows how many frames the Out point for the A side has changed.
B Trim Backward Many: When clicked, this performs the selected trim, adjusting by multiple frames earlier. The size of the adjustment depends on the Large Trim Offset option in the Trim Preferences tab of Preferences.
C Trim Backward: This performs the selected trim, adjusting by one frame at a time earlier.
D Apply Default Transitions to Selection: This applies the default transition (usually a dissolve) to video and audio tracks that have their edit points selected.
E Trim Forward: This is like Trim Backward except it adjusts the edit one frame later.
F Trim Forward Many: This is like Trim Backward Many except it adjusts the edit multiple frames later.
G In Shift counter: This shows how many frames the In point for the B side has changed.
Choosing a trimming method in the Program Monitor
You’ve already learned about the three types of trims you can perform (regular, roll, and ripple). You also tried each in the Timeline. Using Trim mode in the Program Monitor makes the process easier because it provides rich visual feedback. It also provides subtle control when dragging, regardless of the Timeline view scale: Even if the Timeline is zoomed a long way out, you’ll be able to make frame-accurate trim adjustments in the Program monitor Trim view.
1. Open the sequence 12 Trim View.
2. With the Selection tool (V), hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) and double-click the video edit between the first clip and the second clip in the sequence. Holding this modifier key selects just the video edits and leaves the audio tracks untouched.
3. In the Program Monitor, move the cursor slowly across the A and B clips.
As you move the cursor from left to right, you’ll see the tool change from Trim Out (left side) to Roll (center) to Trim In (right).
4. Drag in between both clips to perform a roll edit.
Make sure the time display on the right reads 01:26:59:01.
Clicking the A or B side will switch which side is being trimmed. Clicking in the center will switch to a rolling edit.
5. Press the Down Arrow key three times to select the edit between the third and fourth clips.
The outgoing shot is too long and shows the actor sitting down twice.
6. Change your trimming method to a ripple edit for the outgoing clip (on the left in the Trim view).
The easiest way to change the trimming method is to press the shortcut Shift+T (Windows) or Control+T (Mac OS) to cycle Trim modes. There are five options to cycle through. Tap the key combo once to cycle to the next shortcut. The five choices loop. You’ve selected a ripple edit when the Trim tool shows a yellow trim arrow.
You can also right-click an edit point to choose the trim type from a pop-up menu.
7. Drag to the left for the outgoing clip (on the left) to make the clip shorter.
Make sure the time display on the left reads 01:54:12:18.
The type of trim that’s used by default may seem random, but it’s not. The initial setting is chosen by the type of tool that was used to select the edit point. If you click with the Selection tool, Premiere Pro chooses a regular Trim In or Trim Out. If you click with the Ripple Edit tool, then the Ripple In or Ripple Out trim is chosen. In both cases, cycling the roller will result in a rolling trim. If you use the keyboard shortcut T, you’ll always select a rolling edit.
The rest of the clips ripple to close the gap. The timing of the edit works now.
You can use multiple modifier keys to refine a trim selection.
• Hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) when selecting clips to temporarily unlink audio and video. This makes it easier to select just the audio or video portion of a clip.
• Hold down the Shift key to select multiple edit points. You can trim multiple tracks or even multiple clips at the same time. Wherever you see a trim “handle,” adjustments will be made when you apply a trim.
• Combine these two modifier keys to make advanced selections for trimming.
Performing dynamic trimming
Much of the trimming work you will perform will be to tune the rhythm of an edit. In many ways, achieving perfect timing for a cut is the point at which the craft of editing becomes an art.
The trim mode looping playback makes it easier to get a feel for the timing of an edit, but you can also update a trim using keyboard shortcuts or buttons while the sequence plays back in real time.
1. Continue working with the sequence 12 Trim View.
2. Press the Down Arrow key to move to the next video edit point, between the fourth and fifth video clips. Set the trim type to a rolling trim. You can use the shortcut Shift+T (Windows) or Control+T (Mac OS) to cycle Trim modes.
To control the pre-roll and post-roll durations, go to Premiere Pro Preferences and select the Playback category. You can set the duration in seconds. Most editors find a duration of two to five seconds most useful.
You can stay in Trim mode while switching between edit points.
3. Press the spacebar to loop playback.
You’ll see a playback loop lasting a few seconds, with the shot before and after the cut playing back. This helps you get a feel for the content of the edit.
4. Try adjusting the trim using the methods you’ve already learned while the playback loops.
The Trim Forward and Trim Backward buttons at the bottom of Trim mode view work well and can adjust the edit while the clip plays back.
Now let’s try using the keyboard for more dynamic control. The same J, K, and L keys you use to control playback can also be used to control trimming.
5. Click Stop or press the spacebar to stop the playback loop.
6. Press the L key to shuttle the trim to the right.
The Timeline clip duration updates when you press K to stop trimming.
Pressing once trims in real time. You can tap the L key multiple times to trim faster.
7. Press the K key to stop trimming.
Let’s refine and trim back a little earlier.
8. Hold down the K key and press the J key to shuttle left in slow motion.
9. Release both keys to stop the trim.
10. To exit Trim mode, click away from the edit on the Timeline to deselect the edit. You can also use the Deselect All keyboard shortcut, which is Control+Shift+A (Windows) or Command+Shift+A (Mac OS).
Trimming with the keyboard
Here are some of the most useful keyboard shortcuts to use when trimming.
Table 8.1 Trimming in the Timeline
1. If you change the playback speed of a clip to 50%, what effect will this have on the clip duration?
2. Which tool allows you to stretch a sequence clip to change its playback speed?
3. Can you make time-remapping changes directly on the Timeline?
4. How do you create a smooth ramp-up from slow motion to normal speed?
5. What’s the difference between a slide edit and a slip edit?
6. What is the difference between replacing a clip and replacing footage?
1. The clip will be twice as long. Reducing a clip’s speed causes the clip to become longer, unless the Speed and Duration parameters are unlinked in the Clip Speed / Duration dialog box or the clip is bound by another clip.
2. The Rate Stretch tool allows you to adjust playback speed as if you were trimming. This is useful when you need to fill a small extra amount of time in a sequence.
3. Yes. In fact, time remapping is best performed on the Timeline, where you can easily see the results.
4. Add a speed keyframe and split it by dragging away half of the keyframe to create a transition between the two speeds.
5. You slide a clip over adjacent clips, retaining the selected clip’s original In and Out points. You slip a clip under adjacent clips, changing the selected clip’s In and Out points.
6. Replacing a clip replaces a single sequence clip on the Timeline with a new clip from the Project panel. Replacing footage replaces a clip in the Project panel with a new source clip. Any instance of the clip in any sequence in the project is replaced. In both cases, effects applied to the replaced clip are maintained.