Adobe InDesign CC 2015 release (2016)
8. Working with Color
In this lesson, you’ll learn how to do the following:
• Set up color management.
• Specify output requirements.
• Create color swatches.
• Create color themes and add them to CC Libraries.
• Apply colors to objects, strokes, and text.
• Create and apply a tint.
• Create and apply a gradient swatch.
• Work with color groups.
This lesson will take about 1 hour to complete.
Download the project files for this lesson from the Lesson & Update Files tab on your Account page at www.peachpit.com and store them on your computer in a convenient location, as described in the “Getting Started” section at the beginning of this book.
Your Account page is also where you’ll find any updates to the chapters or to the lesson files. Look on the Lesson & Update Files tab to access the most current content.
You can create and apply process and spot color swatches to objects, strokes, and text. Color themes make it easy to achieve color harmony in layouts. For consistent color usage across projects and workgroups, you can add color themes to CC Libraries. Using a preflight profile helps ensure that the colors output properly.
In this lesson, you’ll add colors, tints, and gradients to a flyer for an art show. The flyer consists of CMYK and spot colors along with imported CMYK images. Before you get started, however, you will do two things to ensure that the document looks as good in print as it does onscreen: You will review color management settings and use a preflight profile to review the color modes of the imported images.
1. To ensure that the preference and default settings of your Adobe InDesign program match those used in this lesson, move the InDesign Defaults file to a different folder following the procedure in “Saving and restoring the InDesign Defaults file” on page 3.
If you have not already downloaded the project files for this lesson to your computer from your Account page, make sure to do so now. See “Getting Started” at the beginning of the book.
2. Start Adobe InDesign. To ensure that the panels and menu commands match those used in this lesson, choose Window > Workspace > [Advanced], and then choose Window > Workspace > Reset Advanced.
3. Choose File > Open, and open the 08_Start.indd file, in the Lesson08 folder, located inside the Lessons folder in the InDesignCIB folder on your hard disk. If an alert informs you that the document contains links to sources that have been modified, click Update Links.
If the Missing Fonts dialog box displays, click Sync Fonts. Click Close when font syncing is complete.
4. Choose File > Save As, rename the file 08_Color.indd, and save it in the Lesson08 folder.
5. If you want to see what the finished document looks like, open the 08_End.indd file located in the same folder. You can leave this document open to act as a guide as you work. When you’re ready to resume working on the lesson document, click its tab in the upper-left corner of the document window.
Color management works to reproduce colors consistently across a range of output devices, such as monitors, tablets, color printers, and offset presses. InDesign gives you easy-to-use color management features that help you achieve good, consistent color without needing to become a color management expert. With color management enabled out of the box, you’ll be able to view colors consistently while ensuring more accurate color from edit to proof to final print.
For higher contrast in the printed manual, the screen captures in this book show the Medium Light interface. Interface elements such as panels and dialog boxes will be darker on your screen.
The need for color management
No screen, film, printer, copier, or printing press can produce the full range of color visible to the human eye. Each device has specific capabilities and makes different kinds of compromises in reproducing color images. The unique color-rendering abilities of a specific output device are known collectively as its “gamut.” InDesign and other graphics applications, such as Adobe Photoshop CC and Adobe Illustrator CC, use color numbers to describe the color of each pixel in an image. The color numbers correspond to the color model, such as the RGB values for red, green, and blue or the CMYK values for cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
Color management is simply a way of translating the color numbers for each pixel from the source (the document or image stored on your computer) to the output device (such as your monitor, laptop, tablet, color printer, or high-resolution printing press). Because each source and output device has its own specific gamut (or range) of colors it is capable of reproducing, the aim of the color translation is color accuracy across devices. You can find additional information about color management in the InDesign Help file, online at www.adobe.com (search for “color management”), in books such as Peachpit’s Real World Color Management, and in DVDs/videos such as Peachpit’s Color Management for Photographers and Designers: Learn by Video.
Displaying images at full resolution
In a color management workflow, even using default color settings, you should display images at high quality for the best possible color representation that your monitor is capable of showing. When you use lower-resolution image displays, graphics are displayed more quickly, but the colors are less precise.
You can specify Display Performance defaults in the Preferences dialog box, and you can change the display of an individual object using the Object > Display Performance menu.
To see the difference in one of your documents, experiment with the options in the View > Display Performance menu.
• Fast Display (ideal for quick text editing because images do not display)
• Typical Display (the default)
• High Quality Display (displays raster and vector graphics at high resolution)
For this lesson, choose View > Display Performance > High Quality Display.
Specifying color settings in InDesign
For consistent color in InDesign, you can specify a color settings file (CSF) with preset color management policies and default profiles. The default setting is North America General Purpose 2, which is the best option for beginners.
According to Adobe, “For most color-managed workflows, it is best to use a preset color setting that has been tested by Adobe Systems. Changing specific options is recommended only if you are knowledgeable about color management and very confident about the changes you make.”
In this section, we review some of the preset color settings in Adobe InDesign that you can use to help achieve consistent color in your projects. However, you will not change any color settings.
1. Choose Edit > Color Settings.
The color settings apply to the InDesign application, not to individual documents.
2. Click the various options in the Color Settings dialog box to see what is available.
3. Point at the Working Spaces title to see a description of this feature in the Description box at the bottom of the dialog box.
4. Point at various other features to see their descriptions.
5. Click Cancel to close the Color Settings dialog box without making changes.
Creating a viewing environment for color management
Your work environment influences how you see color on your monitor and on printed output. For best results, control the colors and light in your work environment by doing the following:
• View your documents in an environment that provides a consistent light level and color temperature. For example, the color characteristics of sunlight change throughout the day and alter the way colors appear onscreen, so keep shades closed or work in a windowless room.
• To eliminate the blue-green cast from fluorescent lighting, you can install D50 (5000° Kelvin) lighting. You can also view printed documents using a D50 light box.
• View your document in a room with neutral-colored walls and ceiling. A room’s color can affect the perception of both monitor color and printed color. The best color for a viewing room is neutral gray.
• The color of your clothing reflecting off your monitor may affect the appearance of colors onscreen.
• Remove colorful background patterns on your monitor desktop. Busy or bright patterns surrounding a document interfere with accurate color perception. Set your desktop to display neutral grays only.
• View document proofs in the real-world conditions under which your audience will see the final piece. For example, you might want to see how a housewares catalog looks under the typical light bulbs used in homes, or view an office furniture catalog under the fluorescent lighting used in offices.
• Always make final color judgments under the lighting conditions specified by the legal requirements for contract proofs in your country.
—From InDesign Help
Proofing colors onscreen
When you proof colors onscreen, also known as “soft proofing,” InDesign attempts to display colors according to specific output conditions. The accuracy of the simulation depends on various factors, including the lighting conditions of the room and whether your monitor is calibrated. To experiment with soft proofing, do the following:
1. Choose Window > Arrange > New Window for 08_Color.indd to open a second window for your lesson document.
If a document contains overprinting and will be printed on an offset press, choose View > Overprint Preview in addition to View > Proof Colors.
2. Choose Window > Arrange > Tile to display windows for each open document.
3. Click the 08_Color.indd:2 window to activate it.
4. Choose View > Proof Colors. You can see a soft proof of the colors according to the current settings under View > Proof Setup.
5. To customize the soft proof, choose View > Proof Setup > Custom.
6. In the Customize Proof Condition dialog box, click the Device To Simulate menu, and review the various presses, desktop printers, and output devices such as monitors available.
7. Select Dot Gain 20% from the Device To Simulate menu, and click OK.
Grayscale profiles such as Dot Gain 20% let you preview how a document will print in black and white. Notice that the InDesign document’s title bar shows which device is being simulated, such as (Dot Gain 20%) or (Document CMYK).
8. Try different soft proofing options.
9. When you’re finished reviewing the various soft proofing options, click 08_Color.indd:2’s close box to close the second window. Resize and reposition the 08_Color.indd window as necessary.
About monitor calibration
Profiling software can both calibrate and characterize your monitor. Calibrating your monitor brings it into compliance with a predefined standard—for example, adjusting your monitor so that it displays color using the graphics arts standard white point color temperature of 5000° K (Kelvin). Characterizing your monitor simply creates a profile that describes how the monitor is currently reproducing color.
Monitor calibration involves adjusting the following video settings: brightness and contrast (the overall level and range of display intensity), gamma (the brightness of the midtone values), and white point (the color and intensity of the brightest white the monitor can reproduce).
When you calibrate your monitor, you are adjusting it so it conforms to a known specification. Once your monitor is calibrated, the profiling utility lets you save a color profile. The profile describes the color behavior of the monitor—what colors can or cannot be displayed on the monitor and how the numeric color values in an image must be converted so that colors are displayed accurately.
For details, see “Calibrate and profile your monitor” in InDesign Help.
—Condensed from InDesign Help
Defining printing requirements
Whether you are working on a document for delivery in a print or digital format, it’s a good idea to know the output requirements before you start working. For example, for a print document, meet with your printer and discuss your document’s design and use of color. Because printers understand the capabilities of their equipment, they may suggest ways for you to save time and money, increase quality, and avoid potentially costly printing or color problems. The flyer used in this lesson was designed to be printed by a commercial printer using CMYK colors. (Color modes are described in more detail later in this lesson.)
Your service provider or commercial printer may provide a preflight profile with all the necessary specifications for output. You can import the profile and use it to check your work against these criteria.
To confirm that your document matches the printing requirements, you can check it against a preflight profile, which contains a set of rules regarding the document’s size, fonts, colors, images, bleeds, and more. The Preflight panel can then alert you to anything in the document that does not follow the rules set in the profile. In this exercise, you will import a preflight profile, select it in the Preflight panel, and resolve an issue with the document.
Loading a preflight profile
First, you will load a preflight profile provided by the printer.
1. Choose Window > Output > Preflight.
2. Choose Define Profiles from the Preflight panel menu ().
3. In the Preflight Profiles dialog box, click the Preflight Profile Menu button () below the list of preflight profiles at left. Choose Load Profile.
4. Select the Flyer Profile.idpp file, in the Lesson08 folder, located inside the Lessons folder within the InDesignCIB folder on your hard disk. Click Open.
5. With the Flyer Profile file selected, look through the settings specified for the output of this ad.
Checked options are those that InDesign will flag as incorrect. For example, under Color > Color Spaces And Modes Not Allowed, RGB is checked. As a result, any uses of RGB colors will be reported as errors.
6. Click OK to close the Preflight Profiles dialog box.
Selecting a preflight profile
Now, you will select the Flyer Profile and review any errors that it flags.
1. From the Profile menu in the Preflight panel, choose Flyer Profile.
Notice that the profile detects one issue with the colors that currently exist in the document.
2. To view the error, click the triangle next to COLOR (1).
3. Click the triangle next to Color Space Not Allowed (1).
4. Double-click Line to select the line that is triggering the error.
5. If necessary, click the triangle next to Info below to see details on the problem.
The lower-left corner of the document window displays the number of preflight errors in a document (provided that On is selected in the upper-left corner of the Preflight panel). If you start to see a lot of errors, open the Preflight panel to see more information.
Because this document is destined for CMYK printing, colors in the RGB color mode are not allowed. The stroke color of the line is in the RGB color model.
Converting a color mode for a swatch
Now, you will resolve the preflight error by converting the color mode of the swatch applied to the line.
1. Choose Window > Color > Swatches to display the Swatches panel.
When you package a document for final output (File > Package), InDesign may flag issues with color models. You will change the color mode in the same way as shown here.
2. Click the Stroke box to see what color is applied to the line. (If necessary, double-click Line again in the Preflight panel, and click the Stroke box () on the Swatches panel.)
3. Double-click the color swatch to open the Swatch Options dialog box.
4. Select CMYK from the Color Mode menu, and then click OK.
5. Notice the error no longer displays in the Preflight panel.
6. Close the Preflight panel, and choose File > Save.
For maximum design flexibility, InDesign provides a variety of methods for creating colors. Once you create colors and color swatches, you can apply them to objects, strokes, and text in the layout. For consistent color usage, you can share colors among documents and users.
• Create colors on-the-fly using the Color panel.
As you work through the lesson, you can move panels around and change the zoom level to a setting that works best for you. For more information, see “Working with panels” and “Changing the magnification of a document” in Lesson 1.
• Create color swatches for consistent usage with the Swatches panel.
• Select a color from an image using the Eyedropper tool.
• Use the Color Theme tool to choose among color themes from images or objects.
• Create and select themes from the Adobe Color Theme panel.
The CC Libraries feature allows you to share colors with Photoshop and Illustrator, with other members of your workgroup, and with other documents.
You can define colors in a variety of color modes, including RGB, CMYK, and “spot color” modes such as PANTONE. The difference between spot and process (CMYK) colors is discussed in detail later in this exercise.
This flyer will be printed by a commercial printer using CMYK color, which requires four separate plates for printing—one each for cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. However, the CMYK color mode has a limited range of colors, which is where spot colors are useful. Because of this, spot colors are used to create additional colors beyond the range of CMYK (for example, metallic inks) and to ensure consistent color (for example, for use in company logos).
In this exercise, you will use the Swatches panel to create a PANTONE color for a logo. You will then use the Eyedropper tool, Color panel, and Swatches panel to create a CMYK color swatch for the flyer’s background color. Finally, you will use the Color Theme tool to create complementary colors from one of the mosaic images in the document. The selected color theme is added to the Swatches panel and to your CC Library.
Creating a PANTONE color swatch
In this flyer, the ART logo in the lower-right corner calls for a PANTONE spot ink. You’ll now add a spot color from a color library. In a real-world scenario, you would need to notify the printer that you plan to use a PANTONE spot color.
1. Using the Selection tool (), click the pasteboard surrounding the page to make sure nothing is selected.
Many corporate identities, including logos, specify a PANTONE color. When working on projects for clients, it’s a good idea to ask about any PANTONE colors and fonts required to reproduce their corporate identity.
2. If necessary, choose Window > Color > Swatches to display the Swatches panel.
3. Choose New Color Swatch from the Swatches panel menu ().
4. In the New Color Swatch dialog box, choose Spot from the Color Type menu.
5. Select PANTONE+ Solid Coated from the Color Mode menu.
6. In the PANTONE C box, type 165 to automatically scroll the list of Pantone swatches to the color you want for this project, which is PANTONE 165 C.
CC Libraries allow you to share assets, such as swatches, among documents and users. You will learn about CC Libraries in Lesson 10, “Importing and Modifying Graphics.”
7. Deselect the Add To CC Library option in the lower-left corner.
When selecting PANTONE colors for print, it’s a good idea to select them from a printed PANTONE color guide, available from www.pantone.com.
8. Click OK. The spot color is added to your Swatches panel.
The icon () next to the color name in the Swatches panel indicates that it is a spot color. New colors added to the Swatches panel are stored with the document in which they are created.
9. Choose File > Save.
You’ll apply the newly added spot color to the “ART” text later in this lesson.
Creating CMYK color swatches
To create a CMYK color swatch from scratch, you need to have an understanding of color mixing and color values. Alternately, you can experiment with mixing colors in the Colors panel and add a color as a color swatch. You can also use the Eyedropper tool to “pick up” a color from an image. In this exercise, you will use the Eyedropper tool to get a head start on creating a CMYK color swatch. Then, you will create another color by simply entering color values.
1. Choose Window > Color > Color to display the Color panel.
Using the Swatches panel to name colors makes it easy to apply, edit, and update colors for objects in a document. Although you can also use the Color panel to apply colors to objects, there is no quick way to update these colors, which are considered unnamed colors. Instead, if you want to change an unnamed color on multiple objects, you need to change each one individually.
2. On the Color panel, click the Fill box () in the upper-left corner.
3. Click the Color Theme tool toward the bottom of the Tools panel. Hold the mouse button down to view the pop-out menu, and then select the Eyedropper tool ().
4. Click the Eyedropper tool on the stepping stone under the word “Choose” in the lower-left corner of the page as shown.
When you know the color definition, as with the PANTONE color, it’s easiest to use the Swatches panel. When you’re trying to match a color in an image, it can work better to use the Eyedropper tool and Color panel.
5. The color picked up from the image displays in the Color panel. Choose Add To Swatches from the Color panel menu ().
A color swatch is added to the bottom of the list in the Swatches panel. It is automatically selected.
6. Double-click the new swatch to fine-tune its settings.
7. Make sure that CMYK is selected from the Color Mode menu. Adjust the color by typing values in the following fields; you can tab from field to field.
• Cyan: 22
• Magenta: 49
• Yellow: 88
• Black: 5
8. Click OK to close the Swatch Options dialog box.
9. Click the New Swatch icon () at the bottom of the Swatches panel. This makes a copy of any selected swatch.
10. Double-click the new swatch added to the bottom of the Swatches panel.
This opens the Swatch Options dialog box so you can edit the swatch.
If you want to give a color a recognizable name, such as Aqua or Forest Green, uncheck Name With Color Value in the Swatch Options dialog box. You can then enter a name in the Swatch Name field.
11. Check Name with Color Value. Make sure that Color Type is set to Process and Color Mode is set to CMYK. Enter the following values in the fields, tabbing between fields:
• Cyan: 28
• Magenta: 91
• Yellow: 95
• Black: 29
12. Click OK to update the color, and then choose File > Save.
You have now created a spot color swatch and two process (CMYK) color swatches. Next, you will create color themes from an image. You can add individual colors and entire color themes to the Swatches panel.
In addition to spot and process colors, InDesign provides Mixed Ink colors to expand the color palette of a two-color piece. To do this, select New Mixed Ink Swatch from the Swatches panel menu. You can then mix a spot color and black to create an additional color, offering the tonal range you would see in a duotone image.
About spot and process colors
A spot color is a special premixed ink that is used instead of, or in addition to, CMYK process inks. Each spot color requires its own printing plate on a printing press, so use spot color when few colors are specified and color accuracy is critical. Spot color inks can accurately reproduce colors that are outside the gamut of process colors. However, the exact appearance of the printed spot color is determined by the combination of the ink as mixed by the commercial printer and the paper it’s printed on, not by color values you specify or by color management.
A process color is printed using a combination of the four standard process inks: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK). Use process colors when a job requires so many colors that using individual spot inks would be expensive or impractical, as when printing color photographs.
• For best results in a high-quality printed document, specify process colors using CMYK values printed in process color reference charts, such as those available from a commercial printer.
• The final color values of a process color are its values in CMYK, so if you specify a process color using RGB (or LAB, in InDesign), those color values are converted to CMYK when you print color separations. These conversions differ based on your color-management settings and document profile.
• Don’t specify a process color based on how it looks on your monitor, unless you are sure you have set up a color-management system properly and you understand its limitations for previewing color.
• Avoid using process colors in documents intended for onscreen viewing because CMYK has a smaller color gamut than that of a typical monitor.
Sometimes it’s practical to use process and spot inks in the same job. For example, you might use one spot ink to print the exact color of a company logo on the same pages of an annual report where photographs are reproduced using process color. You can also use a spot-color printing plate to apply a varnish over areas of a process color job. In both cases, your print job would use a total of five inks—four process inks and one spot ink or varnish.
Each spot color you create generates an additional spot-color plate for the press. In general, commercial printers produce either two-color (using black and one spot color) or four-color CMYK work, with the possibility of adding one or more spot colors. Using spot colors typically increases printing costs. It is a good idea to consult with your printer before using spot colors in a document.
—Condensed from InDesign Help
Creating a color theme
To create colors that complement an image you are using in a document, you can use the InDesign Color Theme tool. The tool analyzes an image or object, selects representative colors, and provides five different themes for you. You can select and use swatches from a color theme, add a color theme’s swatches to the Swatches panel, and share the color themes through CC Libraries. To use the Color Theme tool:
• Click the Color Theme tool on an image or object to create a color theme from a small area.
• Drag the Color Theme tool to marquee images and/or objects on a page from which to create a color theme.
• Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the Color Theme tool to clear the existing color theme and create a new one.
Viewing color themes
First, you will view the possible color themes from the mosaic image featuring the word “Choose.” Then, you will select the color theme you want to use.
1. On the Tools panel, click the Eyedropper tool (). Hold the mouse button down to view the pop-out menu, and then select the Color Theme tool ().
To select the Color Theme tool from the keyboard, press the “i” key. If necessary, press the “i” key twice to cycle through the Eyedropper tool and the Color Theme tool.
2. Locate the mosaic image containing the word “Choose” in the lower-left corner of the page.
3. Click the Color Theme tool anywhere on the image.
Notice that the Color Theme panel displays with a color theme picked up from the image.
4. On the Color Theme panel, click the Current Theme menu. Select the Dark theme.
You can select and use any of the swatches shown here, but instead you will add an entire color theme to the Swatches panel.
Adding a theme to the Swatches panel
The Dark color theme will work best for the flyer in progress. First, you will add it to the Swatches panel and view it in the Adobe Color Themes panel, which helps you manage your themes. Then, you will share this color theme with others in your workgroup who are working on other pieces in the marketing campaign.
1. With the Dark theme selected on the Color Theme panel, click the Add To Swatches button ().
You can add a single color from a color theme to the Swatches panel in addition to adding an entire theme. To do this, select a swatch on the Color Theme panel, and then Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the Add To Swatches button.
2. If necessary, choose Window > Color > Swatches to open the Swatches panel.
The CMYK color values in the Dark theme’s colors may vary slightly. This will not affect your ability to complete this lesson.
3. Scroll down as necessary to see the Dark theme added to the Swatches panel as a color group (organized in a folder).
4. Choose File > Save.
Adding a color theme to your CC Library
The InDesign Creative Cloud Libraries feature makes it easy to share assets, such as color swatches and themes, with a workgroup. If multiple designers are working on a magazine or marketing campaign, this ensures that everyone on the creative team has easy access to the same content. Here, you will add the Dark color theme to your Creative Cloud library. For more information about CC Libraries, see Lesson 10.
1. On the Color Theme panel, with the Dark theme still showing, click the Add To CC Library button ().
To use the Creative Cloud Libraries features, make sure the Adobe Creative Cloud application is running on your system. For more information, see the “Getting Started” section at the beginning of the book.
2. If necessary, choose Window > CC Libraries to see the Dark theme added to your CC Libraries panel.
3. Click the CC Libraries panel menu to see the collaboration options: Share Link and Collaborate.
4. The Dark theme is added to the Adobe Color Themes panel as well. To see it, choose Window > Color > Adobe Color Themes.
If necessary, select a different library from the My Themes panel.
5. In the Adobe Color Themes panel, click My Themes, and then select My Library from the library menu.
6. Press Esc to close the Color Theme panel and close the CC Libraries and Adobe Color Theme panels.
7. Choose File > Save.
In the next exercise, you will apply colors to objects on the page.
Managing color themes
InDesign users have many options for creating and managing color themes. These tools help you synchronize colors across your applications and projects and collaborate with other users.
• The Adobe Color CC app for iPad, iPhone, Android, and Apple Watch lets you create color themes from anything you point at with your device’s camera.
• The Adobe Color CC website at https://color.adobe.com lets you create your own color themes, explore other users’ themes, and review your themes.
• The Adobe Color Themes panel (Window > Color > Adobe Color Themes) lets you create and explore themes within InDesign and other Creative Cloud applications, such as Photoshop CC and Illustrator CC.
• The CC Libraries panel (Window > CC Libraries) allows you to share color themes with a workgroup and manage color themes by copying, moving, or deleting them.
For more information about any of these features, consult InDesign Help.
Once you create color swatches, you can apply them to the objects, text, and more. The Swatches panel, Control panel, and CC Libraries panel offer the primary tools for applying colors. There are three general steps to applying a color:
1. Select the text or object.
2. Select the stroke or fill option, depending on what you want to change.
3. Select a swatch.
To specify whether you want to apply color to a selection’s stroke (outline) or fill (background), you use the Stroke/Fill box (). You can find this box on the Tools panel, the Swatches panel, and the Color panel. Whenever you apply colors, keep an eye on this box, as it’s easy to apply color to the wrong part of an object.
InDesign provides many other options for applying colors, including dragging swatches to objects, copying color from another object with the Eyedropper tool, using Quick Apply, and specifying colors in styles. As you work with InDesign, you will discover which methods work the best for you.
In this exercise, you will apply color swatches to strokes, fills, and text using various panels and techniques.
Applying fill colors to objects
Now you will apply fill colors to various objects on the page using the Swatches panel, dragging a swatch, and using the Eyedropper tool.
1. If necessary, choose Window > Color > Swatches to display the Swatches panel. Leave this panel open until you reach the end of this lesson.
Clicking the small arrow on the Fill/Stroke box () swaps the stroke and fill colors of a selected object.
2. Using the Selection tool (), click anywhere in the margin of the page (outside the guides) to select a large background frame.
Click in the margins of the page to select the large text frame as shown above.
3. Click the Fill box () on the Swatches panel.
4. Click the color you created from the stepping stone: C=22 M=49 Y=88 K=5.
5. Type 30 in the Tint field, and press Enter (Windows) or Return (Mac).
6. Using the Selection tool, select the text frame at left containing the words “Experience the Evolution.”
7. With the Fill box still selected, click the lavender color swatch in the Dark_Theme group. The color swatch name and CMYK values will be similar to: C=41 M=44 Y=22 K=0.
8. Click the pasteboard to make sure nothing is selected on the page.
9. In the Swatches panel, click the burgundy color swatch: C=28 M=91 Y=95 K=29.
10. Drag the swatch to the text frame centered at the bottom of the page containing the words “beautiful mosaics.”
11. Press I on the keyboard twice to select the Eyedropper tool (). Click the text frame containing the words “Experience the Evolution.”
Notice that the Eyedropper tool is now filled (), indicating that it picked up the attributes from that object.
12. Click the box in the lower-right corner containing the word “Art.”
The lower portion of the page should look something like this:
13. Choose File > Save.
Applying colors to strokes
The Stroke panel (Window > Stroke) lets you outline lines, frames, and text. Here, you will apply color to an existing line and graphics frame stroke using options on the Control panel.
1. Using the Selection tool (), click the horizontal line below the words “Art Show.”
2. Click the Stroke menu on the Control panel.
If you apply color to the wrong object or the wrong part of an object, you can always choose Edit > Undo and try again.
3. Scroll down and select the burgundy color: C=28 M=91 Y=95 K=29.
4. Using the Selection tool, click the graphics frame immediately below the line containing the mosaic with the word “Trust.”
5. Click the Stroke menu on the Control panel again. Click the arrow next to the Dark_Theme group to open it.
6. Select the green color in the Dark_Theme group. The color swatch name and CMYK values will be similar to: C=64 Y=38 M=70 K=19.
7. Choose File > Save.
Applying colors to text
You will now select text with the Type tool and apply a fill color to it using the Swatches panel and the Control panel. To create reverse type, lighter text on a dark background, you will apply InDesign’s [Paper] color to text in one frame.
1. Using the Type tool (), click in the text frame starting with “Experience the Evolution.” Drag to select all the text.
[Paper] is a special color that simulates the paper color on which you’re printing.
Notice that the Fill box has changed to indicate that text is selected: ().
2. With the Fill box still selected on the Swatches panel, click the dark blue swatch in the Dark_Theme group. The color swatch name and CMYK values will be similar to: C=99 M=86 Y=37 K=30.
3. Using the Type tool, click in the frame at right containing the words “First Fridays.” Press Ctrl+A (Windows) or Command+A to select all the text in the paragraph.
4. With the Fill box still selected in the Swatches panel, click the burgundy color: C=28 M=91 Y=95 K=29.
Click the pasteboard to deselect the text, which should look something like this:
5. Using the Type tool, click in the text frame centered at the bottom of the page containing the words “beautiful mosaics.” Choose Edit > Select All to select all the text.
6. With the Fill box still selected, click the [Paper] color on the Swatches panel.
Click the pasteboard to deselect the text and see the results.
7. Using the Type tool, click in the text frame containing the word “Art” in the lower-right corner. Double-click in the word to select it.
8. With the Fill box still selected, click the PANTONE 165 C swatch.
9. With the word “Art” still selected, choose Window > Stroke.
10. Type 2 pt in the Weight field, and press Enter (Windows) or Return (Mac).
11. With the Stroke box () selected on the Swatches panel, click Black.
12. Choose Edit > Deselect All, and then choose File > Save.
Working with tint swatches
A tint swatch is a screened (lighter) version of a color that you can apply quickly and consistently. The tint swatch is available on the Swatches panel and in other color menus. You can share tint swatches with other documents through the Load Swatches command on the Swatches panel menu. You will now create a light green tint swatch and apply it to the remaining white text frame.
Creating a tint swatch
You create a tint swatch from an existing color swatch.
1. Choose View > Fit Page In Window to center the page in the document window.
Tints are helpful because InDesign maintains the relationship between a tint and its parent color. So if you change the color swatch to a different color, the tint swatch becomes a lighter version of the new color.
2. Using the Selection tool (), click the pasteboard surrounding the page to make sure nothing is selected.
3. Select the green color swatch in the Dark_Theme group in the Swatches panel. The color swatch name and CMYK values will be similar to: C=66 Y=38 M=71 K=21.
4. Choose New Tint Swatch from the Swatches panel menu ().
5. In the New Tint Swatch dialog box, the Tint option at the bottom is the only option you can modify. Type 35 in the Tint box, and then click OK.
The new tint swatch appears at the bottom of the list of swatches. The top of the Swatches panel displays information about the selected swatch, with a Fill/Stroke box showing that the 35% tint is currently the selected fill color and a Tint box showing that the color is 35% of the original color.
Applying a tint swatch
You will apply the tint swatch as a fill color.
1. Using the Selection tool (), click the text frame at right containing the words “First Fridays.”
2. Click the Fill box () on the Swatches panel.
3. Click the new tint you just created in the Swatches panel. Its tint swatch name will be similar to: C=66 M=36 Y=71 K=21 35%. Notice how the color changes.
4. Choose File > Save.
Working with gradients
A gradient is a graduated blend between two or more colors or between tints of the same color. You can create either a linear or a radial gradient. In this exercise, you will create a linear gradient with the Swatches panel, apply it to several objects, and adjust the gradients with the Gradient tool.
It’s a good idea to test gradients on the intended output device, whether it’s a tablet, inkjet printer, or press.
Creating a gradient swatch
Every InDesign gradient has at least two color stops. By editing the color mix of each stop and adding additional color stops, you can create custom gradients.
1. Choose Edit > Deselect All to make sure no objects are selected.
2. Choose New Gradient Swatch from the Swatches panel menu ().
In the New Gradient Swatch dialog box, gradients are defined by a series of color stops in the gradient ramp. A stop is the point at which each color is at full intensity between the transitions; it is identified by a square below the gradient ramp.
3. For Swatch Name, type Lavender/White. Leave the Type menu set to Linear.
4. Click the left stop marker (). From the Stop Color menu, select Swatches, and then scroll down the list and select the lavender color swatch. Its name will be similar to: C=41 M=44 Y=22 K=0.
To create a gradient that uses a tint of a color, first create a tint swatch in the Swatches panel.
Notice that the left side of the gradient ramp is now lavender.
5. Click the right stop marker (), and make sure the Stop Color is set to [Paper].
The gradient ramp shows a color blend between lavender and white.
6. Click OK. The new gradient swatch appears in the Swatches panel immediately above the Dark_Theme color group.
7. Choose File > Save.
Applying a gradient swatch
Now you’ll replace the fill in one of the text frames with the gradient.
1. Using the Selection tool (), click the text frame at right containing the words “Experience the Evolution.”
2. Click the Fill box () on the Swatches panel.
3. Click the new gradient you just created in the Swatches panel: Lavender/White.
4. Choose File > Save.
Adjusting the direction of the gradient blend
Once you have filled an object with a gradient, you can modify the gradient by using the Gradient Swatch tool to “repaint” the fill along an imaginary line that you draw. This tool lets you change the direction of a gradient and change its beginning point and end point. You’ll now change the direction of the gradient.
1. Make sure the “Experience the Evolution” text frame is still selected, and then select the Gradient Swatch tool () in the Tools panel.
When using the Gradient Swatch tool, the farther away you start from the outer edges of the object, the more gradual the gradient blend will be.
2. To create a more gradual gradient effect, position the cursor outside of the selected text frame, and drag to the right as shown.
When you release the mouse button, you’ll notice that the transition between lavender and white is more gradual than it was before you dragged the Gradient Swatch tool.
To constrain gradient angles to horizontal, vertical, or 45-degree angles, press the Shift key while dragging with the Gradient tool.
3. To create a sharper gradient, drag a small line in the center of the text frame using the Gradient Swatch tool. Continue to experiment with the Gradient Swatch tool in the diamond so that you understand how it works.
4. When you are finished experimenting, drag from the top to the bottom of the text frame. That’s how you’ll leave the gradient for the “Experience the Evolution” text frame.
5. Choose File > Save.
Working with color groups
If a document contains many color swatches that are intended for specific purposes (such as chapter openers or divider pages), you can group the swatches. Any color themes you create are automatically grouped. Before you get started making groups, however, you will clean up this document by removing any unused color swatches.
Deleting unused colors
First, you will delete the color swatches that do not get used in this document.
1. If necessary, choose Window > Color > Swatches.
2. Choose Select All Unused from the Swatches panel menu ().
3. Click the Delete button () at the bottom of the panel.
4. Choose File > Save.
Adding colors to a color group
Rather than create a new color group, you will add the other colors for this document to the Dark_Theme color group folder. You will then rename the group.
1. In the Swatches panel, click the PANTONE 165 C swatch, and drag it into the Dark_Theme group.
To create a new color group, choose New Color Group from the Swatches panel menu, and drag swatches into it.
2. Drag the remaining two swatches you used to the Dark_Theme group: C=22 M=49 Y=88 K=5 and C=28 M=91 Y=95 K=5.
3. Double-click the name of the Dark_Theme color group.
4. In the Edit Color Group dialog box, type Art Show Campaign.
5. Click OK.
6. Choose File > Save.
Previewing the final document
As a final step, you’ll preview the document in its finished state.
1. At the bottom of the Tools panel, select Preview.
2. Choose View > Fit Page In Window.
3. Press Tab to hide all of the panels and review the results of your work.
Congratulations! You have now completed this lesson.
Exploring on your own
Follow these steps to learn more about importing colors and working with gradient swatches:
1. To create a new document, choose File > New > Document, and click OK in the New Document dialog box.
In addition to importing selected colors from another document, you can quickly import all colors from another document. To do this, choose Load Swatches from the Swatches panel menu.
2. If necessary, choose Window > Color > Swatches to open the Swatches panel.
3. Choose New Color Swatch from the Swatches panel menu ().
4. In the Color Mode menu, select Other Library, and browse to find the Lesson08 folder.
5. Double-click 08_End.indd. Notice that the colors you created earlier in this lesson appear in the New Color Swatch dialog box.
6. Select Lavender/White and click Add.
7. Select any other swatches you want, and click Add to load the colors into the new document.
8. Click Done when you’re finished adding colors.
9. Use the frame tools to create several rectangles and ovals, and then experiment with the Gradient Swatch tool.
Notice the difference in the gradients when you drag shorter and longer distances.
10. Double-click the color swatch [Paper], and change its color values.
For a more realistic preview, the page color changes to reflect the color of the paper on which the document will be reproduced.
1. What is the advantage of creating colors in the Swatches panel instead of the Color panel?
2. What are the three general steps involved in applying a swatch of color?
3. What are the pros and cons of using spot colors versus process colors?
4. After you create a gradient and apply it to an object, how do you adjust the direction of the gradient blend?
1. If you use the Swatches panel to apply a color to text and objects, and then decide you want to use a different color, you don’t need to update each use of the color individually. Instead, change the color’s definition in the Swatches panel, and the color changes automatically throughout the layout.
2. The three general steps to applying a color swatch are: (1) selecting the text or object, (2) selecting the stroke or fill box, depending on what you want to change, and (3) selecting the color. You can access color swatches in the Swatches panel and the Control panel. The Tools panel provides quick access to the last color applied as well.
3. By using a spot color, you can ensure color accuracy. However, each spot color requires its own plate on the press, so using spot colors can be more costly. Use process colors when a job requires so many colors that using individual spot inks would be expensive or impractical, such as when printing color photographs.
4. To adjust the direction of the gradient blend, use the Gradient Swatch tool to repaint the fill along an imaginary line in the direction you want.