Adobe Premiere Pro CC (2016)
9. Putting Clips in Motion
In this lesson, you’ll learn about the following:
• Adjusting the Motion effect for clips
• Changing clip size and adding rotation
• Adjusting the anchor point to refine rotation
• Working with keyframe interpolation
• Enhancing motion with shadows and beveled edges
This lesson will take approximately 50 minutes.
The Motion fixed effect controls can add movement to a clip. This can be useful for animating a graphic or for sizing and repositioning a video clip within the frame. You can animate an object’s position using keyframes and enhance that animation by controlling their interpolation between values.
As video projects become more motion graphics-oriented, it’s common to see multiple shots combined on the screen. These are often put into motion. Perhaps you’ll see multiple video clips streaming past in floating boxes, or you’ll see a video clip shrunk down and placed next to an on-camera host. You can create those effects (and more) in Adobe Premiere Pro CC by using the Motion settings or a number of clip-based effects that offer Motion settings.
The Motion effect controls allow you to position, rotate, or scale a clip within the frame. Some adjustments can be made directly in the Program Monitor.
Bézier curve controls were originally used in automotive design but became popular in other design applications because of the fine control they offer for natural curves.
A keyframe is a special kind of marker that defines settings at a particular point in time. If you use two (or more) keyframes, Premiere Pro can automatically animate the settings between them. You can use advanced Bézier controls to make subtle adjustments to the timing or settings for an effect.
Adjusting the Motion effect
Every clip in a Premiere Pro sequence automatically has a Motion effect applied as a fixed effect (also sometimes called an intrinsic effect). To adjust the effect, select the clip in a sequence and look in the Effect Controls panel. Click the disclosure triangle next to the Motion effect to adjust the settings.
The Motion effect allows you to adjust the position, scale, or rotation of a clip. Let’s look at the way this effect has been used to reposition a clip in a sequence.
1. Open Lesson 09.prproj in the Lesson 09 folder.
2. Choose Effects in the Workspaces panel, or choose Window > Workspaces > Effects.
This changes the workspace to the preset that was created to make it easier to work with transitions and effects. If you have been using Premiere Pro for a while, you may need to reset the workspace to the saved version by clicking the Effects menu in the Workspaces panel.
3. Open the sequence 01 Floating.
4. Make sure the Select Zoom Level menu in the Program Monitor is set to Fit. It’s important to see the whole composition when setting up visual effects.
5. Play the sequence.
This clip’s Position, Scale, and Rotation properties have been changed. Keyframes have been added, with different settings at different points in time, so the clip animates.
Understanding Motion settings
Though these controls are called Motion, there’s no movement until you add it. By default, clips are displayed at 100% scale in the center of the Program Monitor.
Here are the options:
• Position: This places the clip along x- and y-axes. Coordinates are calculated based on the pixel position of the anchor point (covered later in this list) from the upper-left corner of the image. So, the default position for a 1280×720 clip would be 640, 360; that is, the exact center.
• Scale (Scale Height, when Uniform Scale is deselected): Clips are set to their full size by default (100%). To shrink a clip, reduce this number. You can scale up to 10,000%, but this will make the image pixelated and soft.
• Scale Width: Deselect Uniform Scale to make Scale Width available. This lets you change the clip width and height independently.
• Rotation: You can rotate an image along the z-axis—a flat spin (as if viewing a spinning turntable or carousel from above). You can enter degrees or a number of rotations. For example, 450 is the same as 1 x 90 (the 1 counts as one full 360-degree turn). Positive numbers give clockwise rotation, and negative numbers give counterclockwise rotation.
• Anchor Point: Rotation and position adjustments are all based on the anchor point, which is at the center of a clip by default. This can be changed to any point, including one of the clip’s corners or even a point outside the clip. For example, if you set the anchor point to the corner of the clip, when you adjust the Rotation setting, the clip will rotate around that corner rather than around the center of the image. If you change the anchor point in relation to the image, you may have to reposition the clip in the frame to compensate for the adjustment.
• Anti-flicker Filter: This feature is useful for interlaced video clips and for images that contain high detail, such as fine lines, hard edges, or parallel lines (that can cause moiré problems). These high-detail images can flicker during motion. To add some blurring and reduce flicker, use 1.00.
Let’s look closer at the animated clip, continuing to work with the sequence 01 Floating.
1. Click the clip on the Timeline to make sure it is selected.
2. Make sure the Effect Controls panel is visible. It should have appeared when you reset the Effects workspace, but if you can’t find it, look for it in the Window menu.
3. In the Effect Controls panel, click the Motion disclosure triangle to display its settings ().
4. At the upper right of the Effect Controls panel settings, to the right of the sequence name and clip name, a small triangle toggles the display of an integrated Timeline. Make sure the Timeline is visible. If it isn’t, click the triangle to show it. The Timeline in the Effect Controls panel displays keyframes.
If the frame containing the Effect Controls panel is very narrow, some of the controls will overlap, making it difficult to interact with them. If this is the case, make the frame wider before working with the Effect Controls panel.
5. Click the Go to Previous Keyframe or Go to Next Keyframe arrows to jump between existing keyframes. Each control has its own keyframes.
Now that you know how to view an animation, let’s reset the clip. You’ll animate from scratch later in this lesson.
It can be difficult to line up the playhead with an existing keyframe. Using the Previous/Next Keyframe buttons helps you avoid adding unwanted keyframes.
6. Click the “Toggle animation” stopwatch button for the Position property to turn off its keyframes.
7. Click OK when prompted that all keyframes will be deleted if you apply the action.
When the Toggle animation button is on, clicking the Reset button will not change any existing keyframes. Instead, a new keyframe is added with default settings. It’s important to turn off animation before resetting the effect to avoid this.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for the Scale and Rotation properties.
9. Click the Reset button, to the right of the Motion effect name in the Effect Controls panel.
Now the Motion settings are all set to their default settings.
Examining Motion properties
The Position, Scale, and Rotation properties are spatial. That means the changes you make are easy to see because the object will change in size and position. You can adjust these properties by entering numerical values, using the scrubbable text, or dragging the Transform controls.
Each control has its own Reset button. If you reset the whole effect, every control is returned to its default state.
1. Open the sequence 02 Motion.
2. In the Program Monitor, make sure the zoom level is set to 25% or 50% (or a zoom amount that allows you to see space around the active frame).
Setting the zoom very small makes it easy to position items outside the frame.
3. Drag the playhead anywhere in the clip so you can see the video in the Program Monitor.
4. Click the clip in the Timeline so it’s selected, with its settings displayed in the Effect Controls panel.
If necessary, click the disclosure triangle to show the Motion properties.
5. Click the Motion effect heading in the Effect Controls panel to select it.
Several effects, like the Motion effect, have a Transform icon () to indicate that you can use direct manipulation in the Program Monitor when you select the effect heading. Be sure to explore Corner Pin, Crop, Mirror, Transform, and Twirl.
When you select the motion effect, a bounding box with a crosshair and handles appears around the clip in the Program Monitor.
6. Click anywhere in the clip bounding box in the Program Monitor and drag the clip around.
Position values in the Effect Controls panel update as you move the clip.
7. Position the clip so that it’s centered on the upper-left corner of the screen. Use the circle and crosshair in the center () to line up the clip with the edge of the picture.
That crosshair is the anchor point, which is used for position and rotation controls. Be careful not to click the anchor point, or you’ll move it in relation to the image.
You’ll see that the Position settings in the Effect Controls panel are 0, 0 (or close to that, depending on where you placed the center of the clip).
This is a 720p sequence, so the lower-right corner of the screen is 1280, 720.
8. Click the Reset button for the motion settings to restore the clip to its default position.
9. Drag the blue number for the Rotation setting in the Effect Controls panel. As you drag left or right, the clip rotates.
Premiere Pro uses a coordinate system that has the upper-left corner of the screen as 0, 0. All x and y values, respectively, to the left of and above that point are negative. All x and y values to the right of and below that point are positive.
10. Click the Motion Reset button in the Effect Controls panel to restore the clip to its default position.
Changing clip position, size, and rotation
Sliding a clip around only begins to exploit the possibilities of the Motion effect. What makes the Motion effect so useful is the ability to change the scale of the clip as well as rotate it. In this example, you’ll build a simple bumper segment for the behind-the-scenes features of a DVD.
Let’s begin by using keyframes to animate the position of a layer. For this exercise, the first thing you’ll do is change the clip position. The picture will start off-screen and then move across the screen from right to left.
1. Open the sequence 03 Montage.
The sequence has several tracks, some of which are currently disabled. You’ll use them later.
2. Move the playhead to the start of the sequence.
3. Set the Program Monitor zoom level to Fit.
4. Click once to select the first video clip on Video track 3. You might want to make the track taller to see it better.
The clip’s controls appear in the Effect Controls panel.
5. In the Effect Controls panel, make sure the Motion settings are visible (click the Motion settings disclosure triangle if necessary). Then click the “Toggle animation” stopwatch button for Position. This turns on keyframing for that setting and automatically adds a keyframe at the playhead position.
From now on, when you change the setting, Premiere Pro will add (or update) a keyframe automatically.
6. Enter a Position setting of –640 into the x-axis (the first number) as a starting position.
The clip moves offscreen to the left.
7. Drag the playhead to the last frame of the clip (00:00:4:23). You can do this in the Timeline panel or the Effect Controls panel.
8. Enter a new setting for the position x-axis. If you enter 1920, the clip will move off the right edge of the screen.
9. Play the sequence and you’ll see the clip move from offscreen left to offscreen right.
A clip on Video 2 pops up suddenly. You’ll animate this clip and others next.
Reusing Motion settings
Because you’ve applied keyframes and effects to a clip, you can save time by reusing them on other shots. It’s as easy as copying and pasting to reuse effects from one clip to one or more other clips. In this example, you’ll apply the same left-to-right floating animation to other clips in the project.
There are several methods for reusing effects. Let’s try one now.
1. On the Timeline, select the clip you just animated. It’s the first clip on Video 3.
2. Choose Edit > Copy.
The clip and its effects and settings are now on your computer’s clipboard.
3. With the Selection tool (V), drag from right to left to select the five other clips on the Video 2 and Video 3 tracks (you may need to zoom out a little to see all the clips). You could also hold the Shift key and select the first and last of the five clips.
As an alternative to selecting a clip in the Timeline, you can always select one or more effect headings in the Effect Controls panel. Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) to select multiple noncontiguous effects. You can then select another clip (or clips) and choose Edit > Paste to paste the effects onto other clips.
4. Choose Edit > Paste Attributes.
5. The dialog box that pops up lets you selectively apply effects and keyframes copied from another clip. Select only the Motion and Scale Attribute Times check boxes and click OK.
6. Play the sequence to see the result.
Adding rotation and changing the anchor point
Moving clips around the screen can be effective, but you can really bring things to life using two more properties. Let’s start with Rotation.
The Rotation property revolves a clip around its anchor point on the z-axis. By default, the anchor point is in the center of the image. However, you can change the relationship between the anchor point and the image for more interesting animation.
Let’s add some rotation to the clip.
1. On the Timeline, click the Toggle Track Output button for Video 6 (). The clip on the layer is titled Behind The Scenes.
2. Move the playhead to the start of the title (00:00:01:13). Try holding the Shift key while you drag the playhead to do this.
3. Select the title in the Timeline.
The title’s controls should appear in the Effect Controls panel.
4. Click the triangle next to the Motion property if its controls aren’t visible. Then select the Motion effect name to see the anchor point and bounding box controls in the Program Monitor.
Let’s adjust the Rotation property and see the effect it has.
5. Enter a value of 90.0 into the Rotation field.
The title rotates in the center of the screen.
6. Choose Edit > Undo.
7. Click the Motion settings heading in the Effect Controls panel.
8. In the Program Monitor, drag the anchor point until the crosshair sits on the upper-left corner of the letter B in the first word.
The Position settings control the anchor point, and now that you have moved it in the image, the settings have updated automatically.
9. Your playhead should still be on the first frame of the clip. Click the Toggle animation stopwatch for Rotation to toggle on animation. This adds a keyframe automatically.
10. Set the rotation to 90.0. This updates the keyframe you just added.
11. Move the playhead forward to 6:00 and set the rotation to 0.0. This adds another keyframe automatically.
12. Play the sequence to see your animation.
Changing clip size
There are a few different methods for changing the size of items in a sequence. By default, items added to a sequence come in at 100% of their original size. However, you can choose to manually adjust the size or let Premiere Pro do it for you automatically.
You can choose from these four methods:
• Use the Scale property of the Motion effect in the Effect Controls panel.
• Right-click a sequence clip and choose Set to Frame Size (if the clip is a different frame size than your sequence). This automatically adjusts the Scale property of the Motion effect to match the frame size of the clip with the size of the sequence.
• Right-click a sequence clip and choose Scale to Frame Size (if the clip is a different frame size than your sequence). This has a similar result to Set to Frame Size, but Premiere Pro resamples the image at the new (usually lower) resolution. If you scale back up now using the Motion > Scale setting, the image might look soft, even if the original clip was very high resolution.
• You can also select Scale To Frame Size by default with the user preference. Choose Edit > Preferences > General (Windows) or Premiere Pro > Preferences > General (Mac OS), select the “Default scale to frame size” option, and click OK. The setting is applied to assets as you import them.
For maximum flexibility, use the first or second method so you can scale as needed without sacrificing quality. Let’s try it.
1. Open the sequence 04 Scale.
2. Scrub through the sequence to view the clips.
The third and fourth clips on the V1 track are much larger than the first two. In fact, your system may struggle to play those clips without dropping frames, and they are dramatically cropped by the edge of frame.
3. Right-click the last clip in the sequence, on the Video 1 track, and choose Scale to Frame Size.
This conveniently scales the image to fit the sequence resolution, though it re-samples the image, losing the original picture quality. However, there’s an issue: The clip is full 4K, with a resolution of 4096×2160, and that is not a perfect 16:9 image. It doesn’t fit the aspect ratio of the sequence, and black bars are introduced at the top and bottom of the image. These bars are often called letterboxing.
This is a common outcome when working with content that has a different aspect ratio than your sequence, and there is no easy way around it. You’ll need to make a manual adjustment.
4. Right-click the clip again and turn off Scale to Frame Size. This is an option you can turn off and on at any time.
5. With the clip selected, open the Effect Controls panel and expand the Motion settings.
6. Use the Scale setting to adjust the frame size until the clip image fits the sequence frame without showing letterboxing; a setting of roughly 34% should work. You can choose any framing and adjust the Position settings to reframe the shot if necessary.
When you scale an image to avoid letterboxing, you’ll have to crop the sides. When aspect ratios don’t match, you have to choose between letterboxing, cropping, or changing the aspect ratio of the image by unchecking the Uniform Scale option in the Effect Controls panel.
Animating clip size changes
In the previous example, the clip image has a different aspect ratio than the sequence.
Let’s try different example, with animation.
1. Position the Timeline playhead over the first frame of the third clip in the sequence, at 00:00:10:00.
2. Select the clip, open the Effect Controls panel, and expand the Motion settings by clicking the disclosure triangle.
3. Right-click the clip in the Timeline panel and choose Set to Frame Size.
4. Turn on keyframing for Scale by clicking the “Toggle animation” stopwatch button for Scale in the Effect Controls panel.
When you select Set to Frame Size, Premiere Pro resizes the clip using the Scale setting so that it fits inside the frame of the sequence. The amount of adjustment varies depending on the image size of the clip and the resolution of the sequence.
This clip scales down to 33.3% to fit the image. You now know you can scale this clip between 33.3% and 100% and maintain quality, while still filling the frame.
This clip is 3840×2160-pixel ultra-high definition (UHD), which is the same image aspect ratio as the sequence, which is 1280×720. It’s also the same aspect ratio as full HD, at 1920×1080. This makes shooting UHD content convenient if you intend to include it in an HD production.
5. Position the playhead over the last frame of the clip.
6. Click the reset button for the Scale setting in the Effect Controls panel.
7. Scrub through the clip to see the result.
This creates an animated zoom effect for the clip. Because the clip never scales to more than 100%, it maintains full quality.
8. Turn on the Track Output option for the V2 track.
This track has an adjustment layer clip on it. Adjustment layers apply effects to all footage on lower video tracks. In this case, the Black and White effect removes color saturation, and a Luma Curve effect increases contrast. You’ll learn more about adjustment layers in Lesson 13, “Adding Video Effects.”
9. Play the sequence.
You may need to render the sequence to see smooth playback because some of the clips are high resolution and will take a lot of computer processing power to play. To render the sequence, go to the Sequence menu and choose Render In to Out.
Working with keyframe interpolation
Throughout this lesson you’ve been using keyframes to define your animation. The term keyframe originates from traditional animation, where the lead artist would draw the key frames (or major poses) and then assistant animators would animate the frames in between. When animating in Premiere Pro, you’re the master animator, and the computer does the rest of the work as it interpolates values in between the keyframes you set.
Temporal vs. spatial interpolation
Some properties and effects offer a choice of temporal and spatial interpolation methods for transitioning between keyframes. You’ll find that all properties have temporal controls (which relate to time). Some properties also offer spatial interpolation (which refers to space or movement).
Here’s what you need to know about each method:
• Temporal interpolation: Temporal interpolation deals with changes in time. It’s an effective way to determine the speed at which an object moves. For example, you can add acceleration and deceleration with special kinds of keyframes called Ease or Bezier.
• Spatial interpolation: The spatial method deals with changes in an object’s position. It’s an effective way to control the shape of the path an object takes across the screen. That path is called a motion path. For example, does an object create hard angular ricochets as it moves from one keyframe to the next, or does it have a more sloping movement with round corners?
Using different keyframe interpolation methods
While you’ve already used keyframes to animate, you’ve only touched on their power. One of the most useful yet least utilized features of keyframes is their interpolation method. This is a fancy way of saying how to get from point A to point B. Think of it as describing the sharp ramp-up as a runner takes off from the starting line and the gradual slowdown after they cross the finish line.
Premiere Pro has five interpolation methods. Changing the method can create a very different animation. You can access the available interpolation methods by right-clicking a keyframe to see the options (some effects have both spatial and temporal options).
• Linear: This is the default method of keyframe interpolation. This method gives a uniform rate of change between keyframes. Changes begin instantly at the first keyframe and continue to the next keyframe at a constant speed. At the second keyframe, the rate of change switches instantly to the rate between it and the third keyframe, and so on. This can be effective, but it can also look a little mechanical.
• Bezier: This gives the most control over keyframe interpolation. Bezier keyframes (named after the French engineer Pierre Bézier) provide manual handles you can adjust to change the shape of the value graph or motion path on either side of the keyframe. By dragging the Bezier handles, you can create smooth curved adjustments or sharp angles. For example, you could have an object move smoothly to a position onscreen and then sharply take off in another direction.
• Auto Bezier: Auto Bezier keyframes create a smooth rate of change through the keyframe. They automatically update as you change settings. This is a good quick-fix version of Bezier keyframes.
• Continuous Bezier: This option is similar to the Auto Bezier option, but it provides some manual control. The motion or value path will always have smooth transitions, but you can adjust the shape of the Bézier curve on both sides of the keyframe with a control handle.
• Hold: This is available only for temporal (time-based) properties. Hold-style keyframes hold their value across time, without a gradual transition. This is useful if you want to create staccato-type movements or make an object suddenly disappear. When the Hold style is used, the value of the first keyframe will hold until the next hold keyframe is encountered, and then the value will change instantly.
Adding Ease to Motion
A quick way to add a feeling of inertia to clip motion is to use a keyframe preset. For example, you can create a ramp-up effect for speed by right-clicking a keyframe and choosing Ease In or Ease Out. Ease In is used for approaching a keyframe, and Ease Out is used when leaving a keyframe.
1. Continue working with the previous sequence.
2. Select the third video clip in the sequence.
3. In the Effect Controls panel, locate the Rotation and Scale properties.
4. Click the disclosure triangles next to the Scale property to reveal the control handles and velocity graphs.
You might want to increase the height of the Effect Controls panel to make room for the extra controls.
Don’t be overwhelmed by the next numbers and graphs. Once you understand one of these, you’ll understand them all because they all use a common design.
The graph makes it easier to view the effects of keyframe interpolation. A straight line means essentially no change in speed or acceleration.
5. Right-click the first Scale keyframe, displayed in the Effect Controls panel mini timeline, and choose Ease Out.
6. Right-click the second Scale keyframe and choose Ease In.
The graph now shows a curves line, which translates as a gradual acceleration and deceleration of the animation.
7. Play the sequence to see your animation.
If you want to create inertia (such as a rocket lifting off), try using Ease. Right-click a keyframe and choose Ease In or Ease Out (for approaching and leaving a keyframe, respectively).
8. Experiment by dragging the Bezier handles in the Effect Controls panel to see their effects on speed and ramping.
The steeper the curve you create, the more sharply the animation’s movement or speed increases. After experimenting, you can choose Edit > Undo repeatedly if you don’t like the changes.
Using other motion-related effects
Premiere Pro offers a number of other effects to control motion. While the Motion effect is the most intuitive, you may find yourself wanting more. In this case, a beveled edge or a drop shadow may come in handy.
The Transform and Basic 3D effects are also useful and give more control over an object (including 3D rotation).
Adding a drop shadow
A drop shadow creates perspective by adding a small shadow behind an object. This is often used to help create a sense of separation between foreground and background elements.
To add a drop shadow, follow these steps:
1. Continue working with the previous sequence, or use the sequence 05 Enhance.
2. Make sure the Program Monitor zoom level is set to Fit.
3. Click to select the Journey to New York Title clip on the V3 track.
4. In the Effects panel, browse into Video Effects > Perspective. Drag the Drop Shadow effect onto the Journey to New York Title clip.
5. Experiment with the Drop Shadow settings. You may need to scroll down in the Effect Controls panel to see them all. When you have finished experimenting, choose the following settings:
• Set the Distance to 15 so the shadow is further offset from the clip.
• Drag the Direction value to about 320° to see the shadow’s angle change.
• Darken the shadow by changing Opacity to 85%.
• Set Softness to 25 to soften the edges of the shadow. Generally, the greater the Distance setting, the more softness you should apply.
To make shadows fall away from a light source, add or subtract 180° from the light source direction to get the correct direction for the shadow to fall.
6. Play the sequence to watch your animation.
Adding a bevel
Another way to enhance the edges of a clip is to add a bevel. This type of effect is useful on a picture-in-picture effect or on text. There are two bevels to choose from. The Bevel Edges effect is useful when the object is simply a standard video clip. The Bevel Alpha effect works better for text or logos because it detects the complex transparent areas in the image before applying the beveled edge.
The Bevel Edges effect produces slightly harder edges than the Bevel Alpha effect. Both effects work well on rectangular clips, but the Bevel Alpha effect is better suited to text or logos.
Let’s enhance the title a little.
1. Continue working with the previous sequence.
2. Select the Journey to New York Title clip on V3.
3. In the Effects panel, choose Video Effects > Perspective and drag the Bevel Alpha effect onto the clip.
The edges of the text should appear slightly beveled.
4. In the Effect Controls panel, increase Bevel Alpha Edge Thickness to 10 to make the edge more pronounced. You might need to scroll down in the Effect Controls panel to see all the settings.
5. Increase Light Intensity to 0.80 to see a brighter edge effect.
The effect is looking pretty good, but it’s currently applied to both the text and the drop shadow. This is because the effect is below the drop shadow in the Effect Controls panel (the stacking order matters).
6. In the Effect Controls panel, drag the Bevel Alpha effect heading up, until it’s just above the Drop Shadow effect. You’ll see a black line where the effect will be placed. This changes the rendering order.
7. Reduce the Edge Thickness amount to 8.
8. Examine the subtle differences in the bevel.
If you’re not getting the look you want when applying multiple effects to a clip, drag the order around and see whether that produces a better result.
You may need to render the sequence to see smooth playback because of the high-resolution clips and nonaccelerated effect.
9. Play the sequence to see your animation.
Adding motion with the Transform effect
An alternative to the Motion effect settings is the Transform effect. These two effects offer similar controls, but there are three key differences.
• The Transform effect processes changes to a clip’s Anchor Point, Position, Scale, and Opacity settings in the stack with other effects, unlike the Motion settings. This means effects such as drop shadows and bevels can behave differently.
• The Transform effect includes Skew, Skew Axis, and Shuttle Angle settings to allow a visual angular transformation to clips.
• The Transform effect is not Mercury Engine GPU–accelerated, so it may take longer to process and doesn’t offer as much real-time performance.
Let’s compare the two effects using a prebuilt sequence.
1. Open the sequence 06 Motion and Transform.
2. Play the sequence to familiarize yourself with it.
There are two sections in the sequence. Each has a picture-in-picture (PIP), rotating twice over a background clip, while moving from left to right. Look carefully at the position of the shadow on each pair of clips.
• In the first example, the shadow follows the bottom edge of the PIP and appears on all four sides of the clip as it rotates, which obviously isn’t realistic because the light source producing the shadow wouldn’t be moving.
• In the second example, the shadow stays on the lower right of the PIP, which is more realistic.
3. Click the first clip on the Video 2 track, and view the effects applied in the Effect Controls panel: the Motion fixed effect and the Drop Shadow effect.
4. Now click the second clip on the Video 2 track. The Transform effect is producing the motion this time, with the Drop Shadow effect again producing the shadow.
The Transform effect has many of the same options as the Motion effect, with the addition of Skew, Skew Axis, and Shutter Angle. As you can see, the Transform effect also works more realistically with the Drop Shadow effect than the Motion effect because of the order in which the effects are applied.
5. If you have a GPU that enabled Mercury hardware acceleration, you’ll see a yellow render bar at the top of the Timeline for the first clip and a red bar for the second.
This is because the Motion effect is GPU-accelerated, which makes previewing and rendering more efficient, while the Transform effect isn’t.
Manipulating clips in 3D space with Basic 3D
Another option for creating movement is the Basic 3D effect, which can manipulate a clip in 3D space. It allows you to rotate the image around horizontal and vertical axes as well as move it toward or away from you. You’ll also find an option to enable a specular highlight, which creates the appearance of light reflecting off the rotating surface.
Let’s explore the effect using a prebuilt sequence.
1. Open the sequence 07 Basic 3D.
2. Drag the playhead over the sequence Timeline (scrub) to quickly view the contents.
The light that follows the motion comes from above, behind, and to the left of the viewer. Since the light comes from above, you won’t see the effect until the image is tilted backward to catch the reflection. Specular highlights of this kind can be used to enhance the realism of a 3D effect.
The four major properties of the Basic 3D effect are as follows:
• Swivel: This controls the rotation around the vertical y-axis. If you rotate past 90°, you’ll see the back of the image, which is a mirror of the front.
• Tilt: This controls the rotation around a horizontal x-axis. If you rotate beyond 90°, the back will also be visible.
• Distance to Image: This moves the image along the z-axis to simulate depth. As the distance value gets larger, the image moves farther away.
• Specular Highlight: This adds a glint of light that reflects off the surface of the rotated image, as though an overhead light were shining on the surface. This option is either on or off.
3. Experiment with the available Basic 3D options.
1. Which fixed effect will move a clip in the frame?
2. You want a clip to appear full-screen for a few seconds and then spin away. How do you make the Motion effect’s Rotation feature start within a clip rather than at the beginning?
3. How can you start an object rotating gradually and have it stop rotating slowly?
4. If you want to add a drop shadow to a clip, why might you choose to use a different motion-related effect from the Motion fixed effect?
1. The Motion effect lets you set a new position for a clip. If keyframes are used, the effect can be animated.
2. Position the playhead where you want the rotation to begin, and click the Add/Remove Keyframe button or the stopwatch icon. Then move to where you want the spinning to end and change the Rotation parameter; another keyframe will appear.
3. Use the Ease Out and Ease In options to change the keyframe interpolation to be gradual rather than sudden.
4. The Motion effect is the last effect applied to a clip. Motion takes whatever effects you apply before it (including Drop Shadow) and spins the entire assemblage as a single unit. To create a realistic drop shadow on a spinning object, use Transform or Basic 3D and then place a Drop Shadow below that in the Effect Controls panel.