Hadoop in Practice, Second Edition (2015)
I first encountered Hadoop in the fall of 2008 when I was working on an internet crawl-and-analysis project at Verisign. We were making discoveries similar to those that Doug Cutting and others at Nutch had made several years earlier about how to efficiently store and manage terabytes of crawl-and-analyzed data. At the time, we were getting by with our homegrown distributed system, but the influx of a new data stream and requirements to join that stream with our crawl data couldn’t be supported by our existing system in the required timeline.
After some research, we came across the Hadoop project, which seemed to be a perfect fit for our needs—it supported storing large volumes of data and provided a compute mechanism to combine them. Within a few months, we built and deployed a MapReduce application encompassing a number of MapReduce jobs, woven together with our own MapReduce workflow management system, onto a small cluster of 18 nodes. It was a revelation to observe our MapReduce jobs crunching through our data in minutes. Of course, what we weren’t expecting was the amount of time that we would spend debugging and performance-tuning our MapReduce jobs. Not to mention the new roles we took on as production administrators—the biggest surprise in this role was the number of disk failures we encountered during those first few months supporting production.
As our experience and comfort level with Hadoop grew, we continued to build more of our functionality using Hadoop to help with our scaling challenges. We also started to evangelize the use of Hadoop within our organization and helped kick-start other projects that were also facing big data challenges.
The greatest challenge we faced when working with Hadoop, and specifically MapReduce, was relearning how to solve problems with it. MapReduce is its own flavor of parallel programming, and it’s quite different from the in-JVM programming that we were accustomed to. The first big hurdle was training our brains to think MapReduce, a topic which the book Hadoop in Action by Chuck Lam (Manning Publications, 2010) covers well.
After one is used to thinking in MapReduce, the next challenge is typically related to the logistics of working with Hadoop, such as how to move data in and out of HDFS and effective and efficient ways to work with data in Hadoop. These areas of Hadoop haven’t received much coverage, and that’s what attracted me to the potential of this book—the chance to go beyond the fundamental word-count Hadoop uses and covering some of the trickier and dirtier aspects of Hadoop.
As I’m sure many authors have experienced, I went into this project confidently believing that writing this book was just a matter of transferring my experiences onto paper. Boy, did I get a reality check, but not altogether an unpleasant one, because writing introduced me to new approaches and tools that ultimately helped better my own Hadoop abilities. I hope that you get as much out of reading this book as I did writing it.
About this Book
Doug Cutting, the creator of Hadoop, likes to call Hadoop the kernel for big data, and I would tend to agree. With its distributed storage and compute capabilities, Hadoop is fundamentally an enabling technology for working with huge datasets. Hadoop provides a bridge between structured (RDBMS) and unstructured (log files, XML, text) data and allows these datasets to be easily joined together. This has evolved from traditional use cases, such as combining OLTP and log files, to more sophisticated uses, such as using Hadoop for data warehousing (exemplified by Facebook) and the field of data science, which studies and makes new discoveries about data.
This book collects a number of intermediary and advanced Hadoop examples and presents them in a problem/solution format. Each technique addresses a specific task you’ll face, like using Flume to move log files into Hadoop or using Mahout for predictive analysis. Each problem is explored step by step, and as you work through them, you’ll find yourself growing more comfortable with Hadoop and at home in the world of big data.
This hands-on book targets users who have some practical experience with Hadoop and understand the basic concepts of MapReduce and HDFS. Manning’s Hadoop in Action by Chuck Lam contains the necessary prerequisites to understand and apply the techniques covered in this book.
Many techniques in this book are Java-based, which means readers are expected to possess an intermediate-level knowledge of Java. An excellent text for all levels of Java users is Effective Java, Second Edition by Joshua Bloch (Addison-Wesley, 2008).
This book has 10 chapters divided into four parts.
Part 1 contains two chapters that form the introduction to this book. They review Hadoop basics and look at how to get Hadoop up and running on a single host. YARN, which is new in Hadoop version 2, is also examined, and some operational tips are provided for performing basic functions in YARN.
Part 2, “Data logistics,” consists of three chapters that cover the techniques and tools required to deal with data fundamentals, how to work with various data formats, how to organize and optimize your data, and getting data into and out of Hadoop. Picking the right format for your data and determining how to organize data in HDFS are the first items you’ll need to address when working with Hadoop, and they’re covered in chapters 3 and 4 respectively. Getting data into Hadoop is one of the bigger hurdles commonly encountered when working with Hadoop, and chapter 5 is dedicated to looking at a variety of tools that work with common enterprise data sources.
Part 3 is called “Big data patterns,” and it looks at techniques to help you work effectively with large volumes of data. Chapter 6 covers how to represent data such as graphs for use with MapReduce, and it looks at several algorithms that operate on graph data. Chapter 7 looks at more advanced data structures and algorithms such as graph processing and using HyperLogLog for working with large datasets. Chapter 8 looks at how to tune, debug, and test MapReduce performance issues, and it also covers a number of techniques to help make your jobs run faster.
Part 4 is titled “Beyond MapReduce,” and it examines a number of technologies that make it easier to work with Hadoop. Chapter 9 covers the most prevalent and promising SQL technologies for data processing on Hadoop, and Hive, Impala, and Spark SQL are examined. The final chapter looks at how to write your own YARN application, and it provides some insights into some of the more advanced features you can use in your applications.
The appendix covers instructions for the source code that accompanies this book, as well as installation instructions for Hadoop and all the other related technologies covered in the book.
Finally, there are two bonus chapters available from the publisher’s website at www.manning.com/HadoopinPracticeSecondEdition: chapter 11 “Integrating R and Hadoop for statistics and more” and chapter 12 “Predictive analytics with Mahout.”
What’s new in the second edition?
This second edition covers Hadoop 2, which at the time of writing is the current production-ready version of Hadoop. The first edition of the book covered Hadoop 0.22 (Hadoop 1 wasn’t yet out), and Hadoop 2 has turned the world upside-down and opened up the Hadoop platform to processing paradigms beyond MapReduce. YARN, the new scheduler and application manager in Hadoop 2, is complex and new to the community, which prompted me to dedicate a new chapter 2 to covering YARN basics and to discussing how MapReduce now functions as a YARN application.
Parquet has also recently emerged as a new way to store data in HDFS—its columnar format can yield both space and time efficiencies in your data pipelines, and it’s quickly becoming the ubiquitous way to store data. Chapter 4 includes extensive coverage of Parquet, which includes how Parquet supports sophisticated object models such as Avro and how various Hadoop tools can use Parquet.
How data is being ingested into Hadoop has also evolved since the first edition, and Kafka has emerged as the new data pipeline, which serves as the transport tier between your data producers and data consumers, where a consumer would be a system such as Camus that can pull data from Kafka into HDFS. Chapter 5, which covers moving data into and out of Hadoop, now includes coverage of Kafka and Camus.
There are many new technologies that YARN now can support side by side in the same cluster, and some of the more exciting and promising technologies are covered in the new part 4, titled “Beyond MapReduce,” where I cover some compelling new SQL technologies such as Impala and Spark SQL. The last chapter, also new for this edition, looks at how you can write your own YARN application, and it’s packed with information about important features to support your YARN application.
You’ll no doubt have many questions when working with Hadoop. Luckily, between the wikis and a vibrant user community, your needs should be well covered:
· The main wiki is located at http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/, and it contains useful presentations, setup instructions, and troubleshooting instructions.
· The Hadoop Common, HDFS, and MapReduce mailing lists can all be found at http://hadoop.apache.org/mailing_lists.html.
· “Search Hadoop” is a useful website that indexes all of Hadoop and its ecosystem projects, and it provides full-text search capabilities: http://search-hadoop.com/.
· You’ll find many useful blogs you should subscribe to in order to keep on top of current events in Hadoop. This preface includes a selection of my favorites:
o Cloudera and Hortonworks are both prolific writers of practical applications on Hadoop—reading their blogs is always educational: http://www.cloudera.com/blog/ and http://hortonworks.com/blog/.
o Michael Noll is one of the first bloggers to provide detailed setup instructions for Hadoop, and he continues to write about real-life challenges: www.michael-noll.com/.
o There’s a plethora of active Hadoop Twitter users that you may want to follow, including Arun Murthy (@acmurthy), Tom White (@tom_e_white), Eric Sammer (@esammer), Doug Cutting (@cutting), and Todd Lipcon (@tlipcon). The Hadoop project tweets on @hadoop.
Code conventions and downloads
All source code in listings or in text is presented in a fixed-width font like this to separate it from ordinary text. Code annotations accompany many of the listings, highlighting important concepts.
All of the text and examples in this book work with Hadoop 2.x, and most of the MapReduce code is written using the newer org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce Map-Reduce APIs. The few examples that use the older org.apache.hadoop.mapred package are usually the result of working with a third-party library or a utility that only works with the old API.
All of the code used in this book is available on GitHub at https://github.com/alexholmes/hiped2 and also from the publisher’s website at www.manning.com/HadoopinPracticeSecondEdition. The first section in the appendix shows you how to download, install, and get up and running with the code.
I use a number of third-party libraries for convenience purposes. They’re included in the Maven-built JAR, so there’s no extra work required to work with these libraries.
Throughout this book, you’ll work with three datasets to provide some variety in the examples. All the datasets are small to make them easy to work with. Copies of the exact data used are available in the GitHub repository in the https://github.com/alexholmes/hiped2/tree/master/test-datadirectory. I also sometimes use data that’s specific to a chapter, and it’s available within chapter-specific subdirectories under the same GitHub location.
NASDAQ financial stocks
I downloaded the NASDAQ daily exchange data from InfoChimps (www.infochimps.com). I filtered this huge dataset down to just five stocks and their start-of-year values from 2000 through 2009. The data used for this book is available on GitHub athttps://github.com/alexholmes/hiped2/blob/master/test-data/stocks.txt.
The data is in CSV form, and the fields are in the following order:
Apache log data
I created a sample log file in Apache Common Log Format with some fake Class E IP addresses and some dummy resources and response codes. The file is available on GitHub at https://github.com/alexholmes/hiped2/blob/master/test-data/apachelog.txt.
1 See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/logs.html#common.
Names were retrieved from the U.S. government census at www.census.gov/genealogy/www/data/1990surnames/dist.all.last, and this data is available at https://github.com/alexholmes/hiped2/blob/master/test-data/names.txt.