Data Science from Scratch: First Principles with Python (2015)

Chapter 9. Getting Data

To write it, it took three months; to conceive it, three minutes; to collect the data in it, all my life.

F. Scott Fitzgerald

In order to be a data scientist you need data. In fact, as a data scientist you will spend an embarrassingly large fraction of your time acquiring, cleaning, and transforming data. In a pinch, you can always type the data in yourself (or if you have minions, make them do it), but usually this is not a good use of your time. In this chapter, we’ll look at different ways of getting data into Python and into the right formats.

stdin and stdout

If you run your Python scripts at the command line, you can pipe data through them using sys.stdin and sys.stdout. For example, here is a script that reads in lines of text and spits back out the ones that match a regular expression:

# egrep.py
import sys, re
 
# sys.argv is the list of command-line arguments
# sys.argv[0] is the name of the program itself
# sys.argv[1] will be the regex specified at the command line
regex = sys.argv[1]
 
# for every line passed into the script
for line in sys.stdin:
    # if it matches the regex, write it to stdout
    if re.search(regex, line):
        sys.stdout.write(line)

And here’s one that counts the lines it receives and then writes out the count:

# line_count.py
import sys
 
count = 0
for line in sys.stdin:
    count += 1
 
# print goes to sys.stdout
print count

You could then use these to count how many lines of a file contain numbers. In Windows, you’d use:

type SomeFile.txt | python egrep.py "[0-9]" | python line_count.py

whereas in a Unix system you’d use:

cat SomeFile.txt | python egrep.py "[0-9]" | python line_count.py

The | is the pipe character, which means “use the output of the left command as the input of the right command.” You can build pretty elaborate data-processing pipelines this way.

NOTE

If you are using Windows, you can probably leave out the python part of this command:

type SomeFile.txt | egrep.py "[0-9]" | line_count.py

If you are on a Unix system, doing so might require a little more work.

Similarly, here’s a script that counts the words in its input and writes out the most common ones:

# most_common_words.py
import sys
from collections import Counter
 
# pass in number of words as first argument
try:
    num_words = int(sys.argv[1])
except:
    print "usage: most_common_words.py num_words"
    sys.exit(1)   # non-zero exit code indicates error
 
counter = Counter(word.lower()                      # lowercase words
                  for line in sys.stdin             #
                  for word in line.strip().split()  # split on spaces
                  if word)                          # skip empty 'words'
 
for word, count in counter.most_common(num_words):
    sys.stdout.write(str(count))
    sys.stdout.write("\t")
    sys.stdout.write(word)
    sys.stdout.write("\n")

after which you could do something like:

C:\DataScience>type the_bible.txt | python most_common_words.py 10
64193   the
51380   and
34753   of
13643   to
12799   that
12560   in
10263   he
9840    shall
8987    unto
8836    for
NOTE

If you are a seasoned Unix programmer, you are probably familiar with a wide variety of command-line tools (for example, egrep) that are built into your operating system and that are probably preferable to building your own from scratch. Still, it’s good to know you can if you need to.

 

Reading Files

You can also explicitly read from and write to files directly in your code. Python makes working with files pretty simple.

The Basics of Text Files

The first step to working with a text file is to obtain a file object using open:

# 'r' means read-only
file_for_reading = open('reading_file.txt', 'r')
 
# 'w' is write -- will destroy the file if it already exists!
file_for_writing = open('writing_file.txt', 'w')
 
# 'a' is append -- for adding to the end of the file
file_for_appending = open('appending_file.txt', 'a')
 
# don't forget to close your files when you're done
file_for_writing.close()

Because it is easy to forget to close your files, you should always use them in a with block, at the end of which they will be closed automatically:

with open(filename,'r') as f:
    data = function_that_gets_data_from(f)
 
# at this point f has already been closed, so don't try to use it
process(data)

If you need to read a whole text file, you can just iterate over the lines of the file using for:

starts_with_hash = 0
 
with open('input.txt','r') as f:
    for line in file:               # look at each line in the file
        if re.match("^#",line):     # use a regex to see if it starts with '#'
            starts_with_hash += 1   # if it does, add 1 to the count

Every line you get this way ends in a newline character, so you’ll often want to strip() it before doing anything with it.

For example, imagine you have a file full of email addresses, one per line, and that you need to generate a histogram of the domains. The rules for correctly extracting domains are somewhat subtle (e.g., the Public Suffix List), but a good first approximation is to just take the parts of the email addresses that come after the @. (Which gives the wrong answer for email addresses like joel@mail.datasciencester.com.)

def get_domain(email_address):
    """split on '@' and return the last piece"""
    return email_address.lower().split("@")[-1]
 
with open('email_addresses.txt', 'r') as f:
    domain_counts = Counter(get_domain(line.strip())
                            for line in f
                            if "@" in line)

Delimited Files

The hypothetical email addresses file we just processed had one address per line. More frequently you’ll work with files with lots of data on each line. These files are very often either comma-separated or tab-separated. Each line has several fields, with a comma (or a tab) indicating where one field ends and the next field starts.

This starts to get complicated when you have fields with commas and tabs and newlines in them (which you inevitably do). For this reason, it’s pretty much always a mistake to try to parse them yourself. Instead, you should use Python’s csv module (or the pandas library). For technical reasons that you should feel free to blame on Microsoft, you should always work with csv files in binary mode by including a b after the r or w (see Stack Overflow).

If your file has no headers (which means you probably want each row as a list, and which places the burden on you to know what’s in each column), you can use csv.reader to iterate over the rows, each of which will be an appropriately split list.

For example, if we had a tab-delimited file of stock prices:

6/20/2014   AAPL    90.91
6/20/2014   MSFT    41.68
6/20/2014   FB  64.5
6/19/2014   AAPL    91.86
6/19/2014   MSFT    41.51
6/19/2014   FB  64.34

we could process them with:

import csv
 
with open('tab_delimited_stock_prices.txt', 'rb') as f:
    reader = csv.reader(f, delimiter='\t')
    for row in reader:
        date = row[0]
        symbol = row[1]
        closing_price = float(row[2])
        process(date, symbol, closing_price)

If your file has headers:

date:symbol:closing_price
6/20/2014:AAPL:90.91
6/20/2014:MSFT:41.68
6/20/2014:FB:64.5

you can either skip the header row (with an initial call to reader.next()) or get each row as a dict (with the headers as keys) by using csv.DictReader:

with open('colon_delimited_stock_prices.txt', 'rb') as f:
    reader = csv.DictReader(f, delimiter=':')
    for row in reader:
        date = row["date"]
        symbol = row["symbol"]
        closing_price = float(row["closing_price"])
        process(date, symbol, closing_price)

Even if your file doesn’t have headers you can still use DictReader by passing it the keys as a fieldnames parameter.

You can similarly write out delimited data using csv.writer:

today_prices = { 'AAPL' : 90.91, 'MSFT' : 41.68, 'FB' : 64.5 }
 
with open('comma_delimited_stock_prices.txt','wb') as f:
    writer = csv.writer(f, delimiter=',')
    for stock, price in today_prices.items():
        writer.writerow([stock, price])

csv.writer will do the right thing if your fields themselves have commas in them. Your own hand-rolled writer probably won’t. For example, if you attempt:

results = [["test1", "success", "Monday"],
           ["test2", "success, kind of", "Tuesday"],
           ["test3", "failure, kind of", "Wednesday"],
           ["test4", "failure, utter", "Thursday"]]
 
# don't do this!
with open('bad_csv.txt', 'wb') as f:
    for row in results:
        f.write(",".join(map(str, row))) # might have too many commas in it!
        f.write("\n")                    # row might have newlines as well!

You will end up with a csv file that looks like:

test1,success,Monday
test2,success, kind of,Tuesday
test3,failure, kind of,Wednesday
test4,failure, utter,Thursday

and that no one will ever be able to make sense of.

 

Scraping the Web

Another way to get data is by scraping it from web pages. Fetching web pages, it turns out, is pretty easy; getting meaningful structured information out of them less so.

HTML and the Parsing Thereof

Pages on the Web are written in HTML, in which text is (ideally) marked up into elements and their attributes:

<html>
  <head>
    <title>A web page</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p id="author">Joel Grus</p>
    <p id="subject">Data Science</p>
  </body>
</html>

In a perfect world, where all web pages are marked up semantically for our benefit, we would be able to extract data using rules like “find the <p> element whose id is subject and return the text it contains.” In the actual world, HTML is not generally well-formed, let alone annotated. This means we’ll need help making sense of it.

To get data out of HTML, we will use the BeautifulSoup library, which builds a tree out of the various elements on a web page and provides a simple interface for accessing them. As I write this, the latest version is Beautiful Soup 4.3.2 (pip install beautifulsoup4), which is what we’ll be using. We’ll also be using the requests library (pip install requests), which is a much nicer way of making HTTP requests than anything that’s built into Python.

Python’s built-in HTML parser is not that lenient, which means that it doesn’t always cope well with HTML that’s not perfectly formed. For that reason, we’ll use a different parser, which we need to install:

pip install html5lib

To use Beautiful Soup, we’ll need to pass some HTML into the BeautifulSoup() function. In our examples, this will be the result of a call to requests.get:

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import requests
html = requests.get("http://www.example.com").text
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'html5lib')

after which we can get pretty far using a few simple methods.

We’ll typically work with Tag objects, which correspond to the tags representing the structure of an HTML page.

For example, to find the first <p> tag (and its contents) you can use:

first_paragraph = soup.find('p')        # or just soup.p

You can get the text contents of a Tag using its text property:

first_paragraph_text = soup.p.text
first_paragraph_words = soup.p.text.split()

And you can extract a tag’s attributes by treating it like a dict:

first_paragraph_id = soup.p['id']       # raises KeyError if no 'id'
first_paragraph_id2 = soup.p.get('id')  # returns None if no 'id'

You can get multiple tags at once:

all_paragraphs = soup.find_all('p')  # or just soup('p')
paragraphs_with_ids = [p for p in soup('p') if p.get('id')]

Frequently you’ll want to find tags with a specific class:

important_paragraphs = soup('p', {'class' : 'important'})
important_paragraphs2 = soup('p', 'important')
important_paragraphs3 = [p for p in soup('p')
                         if 'important' in p.get('class', [])]

And you can combine these to implement more elaborate logic. For example, if you want to find every <span> element that is contained inside a <div> element, you could do this:

# warning, will return the same span multiple times
# if it sits inside multiple divs
# be more clever if that's the case
spans_inside_divs = [span
                     for div in soup('div')     # for each <div> on the page
                     for span in div('span')]   # find each <span> inside it

Just this handful of features will allow us to do quite a lot. If you end up needing to do more-complicated things (or if you’re just curious), check the documentation.

Of course, whatever data is important won’t typically be labeled as class="important". You’ll need to carefully inspect the source HTML, reason through your selection logic, and worry about edge cases to make sure your data is correct. Let’s look at an example.

Example: O’Reilly Books About Data

A potential investor in DataSciencester thinks data is just a fad. To prove him wrong, you decide to examine how many data books O’Reilly has published over time. After digging through its website, you find that it has many pages of data books (and videos), reachable through 30-items-at-a-time directory pages with URLs like:

http://shop.oreilly.com/category/browse-subjects/data.do?
sortby=publicationDate&page=1

Unless you want to be a jerk (and unless you want your scraper to get banned), whenever you want to scrape data from a website you should first check to see if it has some sort of access policy. Looking at:

http://oreilly.com/terms/

there seems to be nothing prohibiting this project. In order to be good citizens, we should also check for a robots.txt file that tells webcrawlers how to behave. The important lines in http://shop.oreilly.com/robots.txt are:

Crawl-delay: 30
Request-rate: 1/30

The first tells us that we should wait 30 seconds between requests, the second that we should request only one page every 30 seconds. So basically they’re two different ways of saying the same thing. (There are other lines that indicate directories not to scrape, but they don’t include our URL, so we’re OK there.)

NOTE

There’s always the possibility that O’Reilly will at some point revamp its website and break all the logic in this section. I will do what I can to prevent that, of course, but I don’t have a ton of influence over there. Although, if every one of you were to convince everyone you know to buy a copy of this book…

To figure out how to extract the data, let’s download one of those pages and feed it to Beautiful Soup:

# you don't have to split the url like this unless it needs to fit in a book
url = "http://shop.oreilly.com/category/browse-subjects/" + \
      "data.do?sortby=publicationDate&page=1"
soup = BeautifulSoup(requests.get(url).text, 'html5lib')

If you view the source of the page (in your browser, right-click and select “View source” or “View page source” or whatever option looks the most like that), you’ll see that each book (or video) seems to be uniquely contained in a <td> table cell element whose class is thumbtext. Here is (an abridged version of) the relevant HTML for one book:

<td class="thumbtext">
  <div class="thumbcontainer">
    <div class="thumbdiv">
      <a href="/product/9781118903407.do">
        <img src="..."/>
      </a>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="widthchange">
    <div class="thumbheader">
      <a href="/product/9781118903407.do">Getting a Big Data Job For Dummies</a>
    </div>
    <div class="AuthorName">By Jason Williamson</div>
    <span class="directorydate">        December 2014    </span>
    <div style="clear:both;">
      <div id="146350">
        <span class="pricelabel">
                            Ebook:
 
                            <span class="price"$29.99</span>
        </span>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
</td>

A good first step is to find all of the td thumbtext tag elements:

tds = soup('td', 'thumbtext')
print len(tds)
# 30

Next we’d like to filter out the videos. (The would-be investor is only impressed by books.) If we inspect the HTML further, we see that each td contains one or more span elements whose class is pricelabel, and whose text looks like Ebook: or Video: or Print:. It appears that the videos contain only one pricelabel, whose text starts with Video (after removing leading spaces). This means we can test for videos with:

def is_video(td):
    """it's a video if it has exactly one pricelabel, and if
    the stripped text inside that pricelabel starts with 'Video'"""
    pricelabels = td('span', 'pricelabel')
    return (len(pricelabels) == 1 and
            pricelabels[0].text.strip().startswith("Video"))
 
print len([td for td in tds if not is_video(td)])
# 21 for me, might be different for you

Now we’re ready to start pulling data out of the td elements. It looks like the book title is the text inside the <a> tag inside the <div class="thumbheader">:

title = td.find("div", "thumbheader").a.text

The author(s) are in the text of the AuthorName <div>. They are prefaced by a By (which we want to get rid of) and separated by commas (which we want to split out, after which we’ll need to get rid of spaces):

author_name = td.find('div', 'AuthorName').text
authors = [x.strip() for x in re.sub("^By ", "", author_name).split(",")]

The ISBN seems to be contained in the link that’s in the thumbheader <div>:

isbn_link = td.find("div", "thumbheader").a.get("href")
 
# re.match captures the part of the regex in parentheses
isbn = re.match("/product/(.*)\.do", isbn_link).group(1)

And the date is just the contents of the <span class="directorydate">:

date = td.find("span", "directorydate").text.strip()

Let’s put this all together into a function:

def book_info(td):
    """given a BeautifulSoup <td> Tag representing a book,
    extract the book's details and return a dict"""
 
    title = td.find("div", "thumbheader").a.text
    by_author = td.find('div', 'AuthorName').text
    authors = [x.strip() for x in re.sub("^By ", "", by_author).split(",")]
    isbn_link = td.find("div", "thumbheader").a.get("href")
    isbn = re.match("/product/(.*)\.do", isbn_link).groups()[0]
    date = td.find("span", "directorydate").text.strip()
 
    return {
        "title" : title,
        "authors" : authors,
        "isbn" : isbn,
        "date" : date
    }

And now we’re ready to scrape:

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import requests
from time import sleep
base_url = "http://shop.oreilly.com/category/browse-subjects/" + \
           "data.do?sortby=publicationDate&page="
 
books = []
 
NUM_PAGES = 31     # at the time of writing, probably more by now
 
for page_num in range(1, NUM_PAGES + 1):
    print "souping page", page_num, ",", len(books), " found so far"
    url = base_url + str(page_num)
    soup = BeautifulSoup(requests.get(url).text, 'html5lib')
 
    for td in soup('td', 'thumbtext'):
        if not is_video(td):
            books.append(book_info(td))
 
    # now be a good citizen and respect the robots.txt!
    sleep(30)
NOTE

Extracting data from HTML like this is more data art than data science. There are countless other find-the-books and find-the-title logics that would have worked just as well.

Now that we’ve collected the data, we can plot the number of books published each year (Figure 9-1):

def get_year(book):
    """book["date"] looks like 'November 2014' so we need to
    split on the space and then take the second piece"""
    return int(book["date"].split()[1])
 
# 2014 is the last complete year of data (when I ran this)
year_counts = Counter(get_year(book) for book in books
                      if get_year(book) <= 2014)
 
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
years = sorted(year_counts)
book_counts = [year_counts[year] for year in years]
plt.plot(years, book_counts)
plt.ylabel("# of data books")
plt.title("Data is Big!")
plt.show()

Books per year

Figure 9-1. Number of data books per year

Unfortunately, the would-be investor looks at the graph and decides that 2013 was “peak data.”

 

Using APIs

Many websites and web services provide application programming interfaces (APIs), which allow you to explicitly request data in a structured format. This saves you the trouble of having to scrape them!

JSON (and XML)

Because HTTP is a protocol for transferring text, the data you request through a web API needs to be serialized into a string format. Often this serialization uses JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). JavaScript objects look quite similar to Python dicts, which makes their string representations easy to interpret:

{ "title" : "Data Science Book",
  "author" : "Joel Grus",
  "publicationYear" : 2014,
  "topics" : [ "data", "science", "data science"] }

We can parse JSON using Python’s json module. In particular, we will use its loads function, which deserializes a string representing a JSON object into a Python object:

import json
serialized = """{ "title" : "Data Science Book",
                  "author" : "Joel Grus",
                  "publicationYear" : 2014,
                  "topics" : [ "data", "science", "data science"] }"""
 
# parse the JSON to create a Python dict
deserialized = json.loads(serialized)
if "data science" in deserialized["topics"]:
    print deserialized

Sometimes an API provider hates you and only provides responses in XML:

<Book>
  <Title>Data Science Book</Title>
  <Author>Joel Grus</Author>
  <PublicationYear>2014</PublicationYear>
  <Topics>
    <Topic>data</Topic>
    <Topic>science</Topic>
    <Topic>data science</Topic>
  </Topics>
</Book>

You can use BeautifulSoup to get data from XML similarly to how we used it to get data from HTML; check its documentation for details.

Using an Unauthenticated API

Most APIs these days require you to first authenticate yourself in order to use them. While we don’t begrudge them this policy, it creates a lot of extra boilerplate that muddies up our exposition. Accordingly, we’ll first take a look at GitHub’s API, with which you can do some simple things unauthenticated:

import requests, json
endpoint = "https://api.github.com/users/joelgrus/repos"
 
repos = json.loads(requests.get(endpoint).text)

At this point repos is a list of Python dicts, each representing a public repository in my GitHub account. (Feel free to substitute your username and get your GitHub repository data instead. You do have a GitHub account, right?)

We can use this to figure out which months and days of the week I’m most likely to create a repository. The only issue is that the dates in the response are (Unicode) strings:

u'created_at': u'2013-07-05T02:02:28Z'

Python doesn’t come with a great date parser, so we’ll need to install one:

pip install python-dateutil

from which you’ll probably only ever need the dateutil.parser.parse function:

from dateutil.parser import parse
 
dates = [parse(repo["created_at"]) for repo in repos]
month_counts = Counter(date.month for date in dates)
weekday_counts = Counter(date.weekday() for date in dates)

Similarly, you can get the languages of my last five repositories:

last_5_repositories = sorted(repos,
                             key=lambda r: r["created_at"],
                             reverse=True)[:5]
 
last_5_languages = [repo["language"]
                    for repo in last_5_repositories]

Typically we won’t be working with APIs at this low “make the requests and parse the responses ourselves” level. One of the benefits of using Python is that someone has already built a library for pretty much any API you’re interested in accessing. When they’re done well, these libraries can save you a lot of the trouble of figuring out the hairier details of API access. (When they’re not done well, or when it turns out they’re based on defunct versions of the corresponding APIs, they can cause you enormous headaches.)

Nonetheless, you’ll occasionally have to roll your own API-access library (or, more likely, debug why someone else’s isn’t working), so it’s good to know some of the details.

Finding APIs

If you need data from a specific site, look for a developers or API section of the site for details, and try searching the Web for “python __ api” to find a library. There is a Rotten Tomatoes API for Python. There are multiple Python wrappers for the Klout API, for the Yelp API, for the IMDB API, and so on.

If you’re looking for lists of APIs that have Python wrappers, two directories are at Python API and Python for Beginners.

If you want a directory of web APIs more broadly (without Python wrappers necessarily), a good resource is Programmable Web, which has a huge directory of categorized APIs.

And if after all that you can’t find what you need, there’s always scraping, the last refuge of the data scientist.

 

Example: Using the Twitter APIs

Twitter is a fantastic source of data to work with. You can use it to get real-time news. You can use it to measure reactions to current events. You can use it to find links related to specific topics. You can use it for pretty much anything you can imagine, just as long as you can get access to its data. And you can get access to its data through its API.

To interact with the Twitter APIs we’ll be using the Twython library (pip install twython). There are quite a few Python Twitter libraries out there, but this is the one that I’ve had the most success working with. You are encouraged to explore the others as well!

Getting Credentials

In order to use Twitter’s APIs, you need to get some credentials (for which you need a Twitter account, which you should have anyway so that you can be part of the lively and friendly Twitter #datascience community). Like all instructions that relate to websites that I don’t control, these may go obsolete at some point but will hopefully work for a while. (Although they have already changed at least once while I was writing this book, so good luck!)

1.    Go to https://apps.twitter.com/.

2.    If you are not signed in, click Sign in and enter your Twitter username and password.

3.    Click Create New App.

4.    Give it a name (such as “Data Science”) and a description, and put any URL as the website (it doesn’t matter which one).

5.    Agree to the Terms of Service and click Create.

6.    Take note of the consumer key and consumer secret.

7.    Click “Create my access token.”

8.    Take note of the access token and access token secret (you may have to refresh the page).

The consumer key and consumer secret tell Twitter what application is accessing its APIs, while the access token and access token secret tell Twitter who is accessing its APIs. If you have ever used your Twitter account to log in to some other site, the “click to authorize” page was generating an access token for that site to use to convince Twitter that it was you (or, at least, acting on your behalf). As we don’t need this “let anyone log in” functionality, we can get by with the statically generated access token and access token secret.

Caution

The consumer key/secret and access token key/secret should be treated like passwords. You shouldn’t share them, you shouldn’t publish them in your book, and you shouldn’t check them into your public GitHub repository. One simple solution is to store them in a credentials.json file that doesn’t get checked in, and to have your code use json.loads to retrieve them.

Using Twython

First we’ll look at the Search API, which requires only the consumer key and secret, not the access token or secret:

from twython import Twython
 
twitter = Twython(CONSUMER_KEY, CONSUMER_SECRET)
 
# search for tweets containing the phrase "data science"
for status in twitter.search(q='"data science"')["statuses"]:
    user = status["user"]["screen_name"].encode('utf-8')
    text = status["text"].encode('utf-8')
    print user, ":", text
    print
NOTE

The .encode("utf-8") is necessary to deal with the fact that tweets often contain Unicode characters that print can’t deal with. (If you leave it out, you will very likely get a UnicodeEncodeError.)

It is almost certain that at some point in your data science career you will run into some serious Unicode problems, at which point you will need to refer to the Python documentation or else grudgingly start using Python 3, which plays much more nicely with Unicode text.

If you run this, you should get some tweets back like:

haithemnyc: Data scientists with the technical savvy & analytical chops to
derive meaning from big data are in demand. http://t.co/HsF9Q0dShP
 
RPubsRecent: Data Science http://t.co/6hcHUz2PHM
 
spleonard1: Using #dplyr in #R to work through a procrastinated assignment for
@rdpeng in @coursera data science specialization.  So easy and Awesome.

This isn’t that interesting, largely because the Twitter Search API just shows you whatever handful of recent results it feels like. When you’re doing data science, more often you want a lot of tweets. This is where the Streaming API is useful. It allows you to connect to (a sample of) the great Twitter firehose. To use it, you’ll need to authenticate using your access tokens.

In order to access the Streaming API with Twython, we need to define a class that inherits from TwythonStreamer and that overrides its on_success method (and possibly its on_error method):

from twython import TwythonStreamer
 
# appending data to a global variable is pretty poor form
# but it makes the example much simpler
tweets = []
 
class MyStreamer(TwythonStreamer):
    """our own subclass of TwythonStreamer that specifies
    how to interact with the stream"""
 
    def on_success(self, data):
        """what do we do when twitter sends us data?
        here data will be a Python dict representing a tweet"""
 
        # only want to collect English-language tweets
        if data['lang'] == 'en':
            tweets.append(data)
            print "received tweet #", len(tweets)
 
        # stop when we've collected enough
        if len(tweets) >= 1000:
            self.disconnect()
 
    def on_error(self, status_code, data):
        print status_code, data
        self.disconnect()

MyStreamer will connect to the Twitter stream and wait for Twitter to feed it data. Each time it receives some data (here, a Tweet represented as a Python object) it passes it to the on_success method, which appends it to our tweets list if its language is English, and then disconnects the streamer after it’s collected 1,000 tweets.

All that’s left is to initialize it and start it running:

stream = MyStreamer(CONSUMER_KEY, CONSUMER_SECRET,
                    ACCESS_TOKEN, ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET)
 
# starts consuming public statuses that contain the keyword 'data'
stream.statuses.filter(track='data')
 
# if instead we wanted to start consuming a sample of *all* public statuses
# stream.statuses.sample()

This will run until it collects 1,000 tweets (or until it encounters an error) and stop, at which point you can start analyzing those tweets. For instance, you could find the most common hashtags with:

top_hashtags = Counter(hashtag['text'].lower()
                       for tweet in tweets
                       for hashtag in tweet["entities"]["hashtags"])
 
print top_hashtags.most_common(5)

Each tweet contains a lot of data. You can either poke around yourself or dig through the Twitter API documentation.

NOTE

In a non-toy project you probably wouldn’t want to rely on an in-memory list for storing the tweets. Instead you’d want to save them to a file or a database, so that you’d have them permanently.

 

For Further Exploration

§  pandas is the primary library that data science types use for working with (and, in particular, importing) data.

§  Scrapy is a more full-featured library for building more complicated web scrapers that do things like follow unknown links.