Mastering Machine Learning with Python in Six Steps: A Practical Implementation Guide to Predictive Data Analytics Using Python (2017)

4. Step 4 – Model Diagnosis and Tuning

Manohar Swamynathan1

(1)

Bangalore, Karnataka, India

In this chapter you’ll learn about the different pitfalls that one should be aware of and that you will encounter while building machine learning systems. You’ll also learn industry standard-efficient designs practiced to solve them.

Throughout this chapter, we’ll mostly be using a dataset from the UCI repository, “Pima Indian diabetes,” which has 768 records, 8 attributes, 2 classes, 268 (34.9%) positive results for diabetes test, and 500 (65.1%) negative results. All patients were females at least 21 years old of Pima Indian heritage.

Attributes of dataset:

1. 1.

Number of times pregnant

2. 2.

Plasma glucose concentration at 2 hours in an oral glucose tolerance test

3. 3.

Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)

4. 4.

Triceps skin fold thickness (mm)

5. 5.

2-Hour serum insulin (mu U/ml)

6. 6.

Body mass index (weight in kg/(height in m)^2)

7. 7.

Diabetes pedigree function

8. 8.

Age (years)

Optimal Probability Cutoff Point

Predicted probability is a number between 0 and 1. Traditionally >.5 is the cutoff point used for converting predicted probability to 1 (positive), otherwise it is 0 (negative). This logic works well when your training dataset has equal examples of positive and negative cases; however this is not the case in real-world scenarios.

The solution is to find the optimal cutoff point, that is, the point where the true positive rate is high and the false positive rate is low. Anything above this threshold can be labeled as 1 or else it is 0. Let’s understand this better with an example.

Let’s load the data and check the class distribution. See Listing 4-1.

import pandas as pd

import pylab as plt

import numpy as np

from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

from sklearn import metrics

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

# target variable % distribution

print df['class'].value_counts(normalize=True)

#----output----

0 0.651042

1 0.348958

Listing 4-1.

Load data and check the class distribution

Let’s build a quick logistic regression model and check the accuracy. See Listing 4-2.

X = df.ix[:,:8] # independent variables

y = df['class'] # dependent variables

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.3, random_state=0)

# instantiate a logistic regression model, and fit

model = LogisticRegression()

model = model.fit(X_train, y_train)

# predict class labels for the train set. The predict fuction converts probability values > .5 to 1 else 0

y_pred = model.predict(X_train)

# generate class probabilities

# Notice that 2 elements will be returned in probs array,

# 1st element is probability for negative class,

# 2nd element gives probability for positive class

probs = model.predict_proba(X_train)

y_pred_prob = probs[:, 1]

# generate evaluation metrics

print "Accuracy: ", metrics.accuracy_score(y_train, y_pred)

#----output----

Accuracy: 0.767225325885

Listing 4-2.

Build logistic regression model and evaluate performance

The optimal cutoff would be where the true positive rate (tpr) is high and the false positive rate (fpr) is low, and tpr - (1-fpr) is zero or near to zero. Let’s plot an ROC (receiver operating characteristic) plot of tprvs, 1-fpr. See Listing 4-3.

# extract false positive, true positive rate

fpr, tpr, thresholds = metrics.roc_curve(y_train, y_pred_prob)

roc_auc = metrics.auc(fpr, tpr)

print("Area under the ROC curve : %f" % roc_auc)

i = np.arange(len(tpr)) # index for df

roc = pd.DataFrame({'fpr' : pd.Series(fpr, index=i),'tpr' : pd.Series(tpr, index = i),'1-fpr' : pd.Series(1-fpr, index = i), 'tf' : pd.Series(tpr - (1-fpr), index = i),'thresholds' : pd.Series(thresholds, index = i)})

roc.ix[(roc.tf-0).abs().argsort()[:1]]

# Plot tpr vs 1-fpr

fig, ax = plt.subplots()

plt.plot(roc['tpr'], label='tpr')

plt.plot(roc['1-fpr'], color = 'red', label='1-fpr')

plt.legend(loc='best')

plt.xlabel('1-False Positive Rate')

plt.ylabel('True Positive Rate')

plt.title('Receiver operating characteristic')

plt.show()

#----output----

Listing 4-3.

Find optimal cutoff point

A434293_1_En_4_Figa_HTML

From the chart the point where tpr crosses 1-fpr is the optimal cutoff point. To simplify finding the optimal probability threshold and bringing in reusability, I have made a function to find the optimal probability cutoff point. See Listing 4-4.

def Find_Optimal_Cutoff(target, predicted):

""" Find the optimal probability cutoff point for a classification model related to event rate

Parameters

----------

target : Matrix with dependent or target data, where rows are observations

predicted : Matrix with predicted data, where rows are observations

Returns

-------

list type, with optimal cutoff value

"""

fpr, tpr, threshold = metrics.roc_curve(target, predicted)

i = np.arange(len(tpr))

roc = pd.DataFrame({'tf' : pd.Series(tpr-(1-fpr), index=i), 'threshold' : pd.Series(threshold, index=i)})

roc_t = roc.ix[(roc.tf-0).abs().argsort()[:1]]

return list(roc_t['threshold'])

# Find optimal probability threshold

# Note: probs[:, 1] will have probability of being positive label

threshold = Find_Optimal_Cutoff(y_train, probs[:, 1])

print "Optimal Probability Threshold: ", threshold

# Applying the threshold to the prediction probability

y_pred_optimal = np.where(y_pred_prob >= threshold, 1, 0)

# Let's compare the accuracy of traditional/normal approach vs optimal cutoff

print "\nNormal - Accuracy: ", metrics.accuracy_score(y_train, y_pred)

print "Optimal Cutoff - Accuracy: ", metrics.accuracy_score(y_train, y_pred_optimal)

print "\nNormal - Confusion Matrix: \n", metrics.confusion_matrix(y_train, y_pred)

print "Optimal - Cutoff Confusion Matrix: \n", metrics.confusion_matrix(y_train, y_pred_optimal)

#----output----

Optimal Probability Threshold: [0.36133240553264734]

Normal - Accuracy: 0.767225325885

Optimal Cutoff - Accuracy: 0.761638733706

Normal - Confusion Matrix:

[[303 40]

[ 85 109]]

Optimal - Cutoff Confusion Matrix:

[[261 82]

[ 46 148]]

Listing 4-4.

Function for finding optimal probability cutoff

Notice that there is no significant difference in overall accuracy between normal vs. optimal cutoff method; both are 76%. However there is a 36% increase in the true positive rate in the optimal cutoff method; that is, you are now able to capture 36% more positive cases as positive; also the false positive (Type I error) has doubled, that is, the probability of predicting an individual not having diabetes as positive has increases.

Which Error Is Costly?

Well, there is no one answer for this question! It depends on the domain, problem that you are trying to address, and the business requirement. In our Pima diabetic case, comparatively a type II error might be more damaging than a type I error, however it’s arguable. See Figure 4-1.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig1_HTML

Figure 4-1.

Type I vs. Type II error

Rare Event or Imbalanced Dataset

Providing an equal sample of positive and negative instances to the classification algorithm will result in an optimal result. Datasets that are highly skewed toward one or more classes have proven to be a challenge.

Resampling is a common practice to address the imbalanced dataset issue. Although there are many techniques within resampling, here we’ll be learning the three most popular techniques.

· Random under-sampling – Reduce majority class to match minority class count.

· Random over-sampling – Increase minority class by randomly picking samples within minority class till counts of both class match.

· Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique (SMOTE) – Increase minority class by introducing synthetic examples through connecting all k (default = 5) minority class nearest neighbors using feature space similarity (Euclidean distance). See Figure 4-2.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig2_HTML

Figure 4-2.

Imbalanced dataset handling techniques

Let’s create a sample imbalanced dataset using make_classification function of sklearn. See Listing 4-5.

# Load libraries

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

from sklearn.datasets import make_classification

from imblearn.under_sampling import RandomUnderSampler

from imblearn.over_sampling import RandomOverSampler

from imblearn.over_sampling import SMOTE

# Generate the dataset with 2 features to keep it simple

X, y = make_classification(n_samples=5000, n_features=2, n_informative=2,

n_redundant=0, weights=[0.9, 0.1], random_state=2017)

print "Positive class: ", y.tolist().count(1)

print "Negative class: ", y.tolist().count(0)

#----output----

Positive class: 514

Negative class: 4486

Listing 4-5.

Rare event or imbalanced data handling

Let’s apply the above described three sampling techniques to the dataset to balance the dataset and visualize for better understanding.

# Apply the random under-sampling

rus = RandomUnderSampler()

X_RUS, y_RUS = rus.fit_sample(X, y)

# Apply the random over-sampling

ros = RandomOverSampler()

X_ROS, y_ROS = ros.fit_sample(X, y)

# Apply regular SMOTE

sm = SMOTE(kind='regular')

X_SMOTE, y_SMOTE = sm.fit_sample(X, y)

# Original vs resampled subplots

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 6))

plt.subplot(2,2,1)

plt.scatter(X[y==0,0], X[y==0,1], marker='o', color='blue')

plt.scatter(X[y==1,0], X[y==1,1], marker='+', color='red')

plt.xlabel('x1')

plt.ylabel('x2')

plt.title('Original: 1=%s and 0=%s' %(y.tolist().count(1), y.tolist().count(0)))

plt.subplot(2,2,2)

plt.scatter(X_RUS[y_RUS==0,0], X_RUS[y_RUS==0,1], marker='o', color='blue')

plt.scatter(X_RUS[y_RUS==1,0], X_RUS[y_RUS==1,1], marker='+', color='red')

plt.xlabel('x1')

plt.ylabel('y2')

plt.title('Random Under-sampling: 1=%s and 0=%s' %(y_RUS.tolist().count(1), y_RUS.tolist().count(0)))

plt.subplot(2,2,3)

plt.scatter(X_ROS[y_ROS==0,0], X_ROS[y_ROS==0,1], marker='o', color='blue')

plt.scatter(X_ROS[y_ROS==1,0], X_ROS[y_ROS==1,1], marker='+', color='red')

plt.xlabel('x1')

plt.ylabel('x2')

plt.title('Random over-sampling: 1=%s and 0=%s' %(y_ROS.tolist().count(1), y_ROS.tolist().count(0)))

plt.subplot(2,2,4)

plt.scatter(X_SMOTE[y_SMOTE==0,0], X_SMOTE[y_SMOTE==0,1], marker='o', color='blue')

plt.scatter(X_SMOTE[y_SMOTE==1,0], X_SMOTE[y_SMOTE==1,1], marker='+', color='red')

plt.xlabel('x1')

plt.ylabel('y2')

plt.title('SMOTE: 1=%s and 0=%s' %(y_SMOTE.tolist().count(1), y_SMOTE.tolist().count(0)))

plt.tight_layout()

plt.show()

#----output----

A434293_1_En_4_Figb_HTML

Known Disadvantages

· Random Under-Sampling raises the opportunity for loss of information or concepts as we are reducing the majority class.

· Random Over-Sampling and SMOTE can lead to over-fitting issues due to multiple related instances.

Which Resampling Technique Is the Best?

Well, yet again there is no one answer to this question! Let’s try a quick classification model on the above three resampled data and compare the accuracy (we’ll use AUC metric as this is one of the best representations of model performance). See Listing 4-6.

from sklearn import tree

from sklearn import metrics

from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split

X_RUS_train, X_RUS_test, y_RUS_train, y_RUS_test = train_test_split(X_RUS, y_RUS, test_size=0.3, random_state=2017)

X_ROS_train, X_ROS_test, y_ROS_train, y_ROS_test = train_test_split(X_ROS, y_ROS, test_size=0.3, random_state=2017)

X_SMOTE_train, X_SMOTE_test, y_SMOTE_train, y_SMOTE_test = train_test_split(X_SMOTE, y_SMOTE, test_size=0.3, random_state=2017)

# build a decision tree classifier

clf = tree.DecisionTreeClassifier(random_state=2017)

clf_rus = clf.fit(X_RUS_train, y_RUS_train)

clf_ros = clf.fit(X_ROS_train, y_ROS_train)

clf_smote = clf.fit(X_SMOTE_train, y_SMOTE_train)

# evaluate model performance

print "\nRUS - Train AUC : ",metrics.roc_auc_score(y_RUS_train, clf.predict(X_RUS_train))

print "RUS - Test AUC : ",metrics.roc_auc_score(y_RUS_test, clf.predict(X_RUS_test))

print "ROS - Train AUC : ",metrics.roc_auc_score(y_ROS_train, clf.predict(X_ROS_train))

print "ROS - Test AUC : ",metrics.roc_auc_score(y_ROS_test, clf.predict(X_ROS_test))

print "\nSMOTE - Train AUC : ",metrics.roc_auc_score(y_SMOTE_train, clf.predict(X_SMOTE_train))

print "SMOTE - Test AUC : ",metrics.roc_auc_score(y_SMOTE_test, clf.predict(X_SMOTE_test))

#----output----

RUS - Train AUC : 0.988945248974

RUS - Test AUC : 0.983964646465

ROS - Train AUC : 0.985666951094

ROS - Test AUC : 0.986630288452

SMOTE - Train AUC : 1.0

SMOTE - Test AUC : 0.956132695918

Listing 4-6.

Build models on various resampling methods and evaluate performance

Here random over-sampling is performing better on both train and test sets. As a best practice, in real-world use cases it is recommended to look at other metrics (such as precision, recall, confusion matrix) and apply business context or domain knowledge to assess the true performance of a model.

Bias and Variance

A fundamental problem with supervised learning is the bias variance trade-off. Ideally a model should have two key characteristics.

1. 1.

Sensitive enough to accurately capture the key patterns in the training dataset.

2. 2.

It should be generalized enough to work well on any unseen datasets.

Unfortunately, while trying to achieve the above-mentioned first point, there is an ample chance of over-fitting to noisy or unrepresentative training data points leading to a failure of generalizing the model. On the other hand, trying to generalize a model may result in failing to capture important regularities.

Bias

If model accuracy is low on a training dataset as well as test dataset the model is said to be under-fitting or that the model has high bias. This means the model is not fitting the training dataset points well in regression or the decision boundary is not separating the classes well in classification; and two key reasons for bias are 1) not including the right features, and 2) not picking the correct order of polynomial degrees for model fitting.

To solve an under-fitting issue or to reduced bias, try including more meaningful features and try to increase the model complexity by trying higher-order polynomial fittings.

Variance

If a model is giving high accuracy on a training dataset, however on a test dataset the accuracy drops drastically, then the model is said to be over-fitting or a model that has high variance. The key reason for over-fitting is using higher-order polynomial degree (may not be required), which will fit decision boundary tools well to all data points including the noise of train dataset, instead of the underlying relationship. This will lead to a high accuracy (actual vs. predicted) in the train dataset and when applied to the test dataset, the prediction error will be high.

To solve the over-fitting issue:

· Try to reduce the number of features, that is, keep only the meaningful features or try regularization methods that will keep all the features, however reduce the magnitude of the feature parameter.

· Dimension reduction can eliminate noisy features, in turn, reducing the model variance.

· Brining more data points to make training dataset large will also reduce variance.

· Choosing right model parameters can help to reduce the bias and variance, for example.

· Using right regularization parameters can decrease variance in regression-based models.

· For a decision tree reducing the depth of the decision tree will reduce the variance. See Figure 4-3.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig3_HTML

Figure 4-3.

Bias Variance trade-off

K-Fold Cross-Validation

K-folds cross-validation splits the training dataset into k-folds without replacement, that is, any given data point will only be part of one of the subset, where k-1 folds are used for the model training and one fold is used for testing. The procedure is repeated k times so that we obtain k models and performance estimates.

We then calculate the average performance of the models based on the individual folds to obtain a performance estimate that is less sensitive to the subpartitioning of the training data compared to the holdout or single fold method. See Figure 4-4.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig4_HTML

Figure 4-4.

K-fold cross-validation

Let’s use K-fold cross-validation of sklearn to build a classification model . See Listing 4-7.

from sklearn.cross_validation import cross_val_score

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

X = df.ix[:,:8].values # independent variables

y = df['class'].values # dependent variables

# Normalize Data

sc = StandardScaler()

sc.fit(X)

X = sc.transform(X)

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.3, random_state=2017)

# build a decision tree classifier

clf = tree.DecisionTreeClassifier(random_state=2017)

# evaluate the model using 10-fold cross-validation

train_scores = cross_val_score(clf, X_train, y_train, scoring='accuracy', cv=5)

test_scores = cross_val_score(clf, X_test, y_test, scoring='accuracy', cv=5)

print "Train Fold AUC Scores: ", train_scores

print "Train CV AUC Score: ", train_scores.mean()

print "\nTest Fold AUC Scores: ", test_scores

print "Test CV AUC Score: ", test_scores.mean()

#---output----

Train Fold AUC Scores: [0.80 0.73 0.81 0.76 0.71]

Train CV AUC Score: 0.76

Test Fold AUC Scores: [0.80 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.8]

Test CV AUC Score: 0.79

Listing 4-7.

K-fold cross-validation

Stratified K-Fold Cross-Validation

An extended cross-validation is the Stratified K-fold cross-validation, where the class proportions are preserved in each fold, leading to better bias and variance estimates. See Listing 4-8.

# stratified kfold cross-validation

kfold = cross_validation.StratifiedKFold(y=y_train, n_folds=5, random_state=2017)

train_scores = []

test_scores = []

for k, (train, test) in enumerate(kfold):

clf.fit(X_train[train], y_train[train])

train_score = clf.score(X_train[train], y_train[train])

train_scores.append(train_score)

# score for test set

test_score = clf.score(X_train[test], y_train[test])

test_scores.append(test_score)

print('Fold: %s, Class dist.: %s, Train Acc: %.3f, Test Acc: %.3f'

% (k+1, np.bincount(y_train[train]), train_score, test_score))

print('\nTrain CV accuracy: %.3f' % (np.mean(train_scores)))

print('Test CV accuracy: %.3f' % (np.mean(test_scores)))

#----output----

Fold: 1, Class dist.: [277 152], Train Acc: 0.758, Test Acc: 0.806

Fold: 2, Class dist.: [277 152], Train Acc: 0.779, Test Acc: 0.731

Fold: 3, Class dist.: [278 152], Train Acc: 0.767, Test Acc: 0.813

Fold: 4, Class dist.: [278 152], Train Acc: 0.781, Test Acc: 0.766

Fold: 5, Class dist.: [278 152], Train Acc: 0.781, Test Acc: 0.710

Train CV accuracy: 0.773

Test CV accuracy: 0.765

Listing 4-8.

Stratified k-fold cross-validation

Ensemble Methods

Ensemble methods enable combining multiple model scores into a single score to create a robust generalized model.

At a high level there are two types of ensemble methods.

1. 1.

Combine multiple models of similar type

· Bagging (Bootstrap aggregation)

· Boosting

2. 2.

Combine multiple models of various types

· Vote Classification

· Blending or Stacking

Bagging

Bootstrap aggregation (also known as bagging ) was proposed by Leo Breiman in 1994, which is a model aggregation technique to reduce model variance. The training data is split into multiple samples with replacements called bootstrap samples. Bootstrap sample size will be the same as the original sample size, with 3/4th of the original values and replacement result in repetition of values. See Figure 4-5.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig5_HTML

Figure 4-5.

Bootstraping

Independent models on each of the bootstrap samples are built, and the average of the predictions for regression or majority vote for classification is used to create the final model.

Figure 4-6 shows the bagging process flow. Let N be the number of bootstrap samples created out of the original training set. For i = 1 to N, train a base machine learning model Ci.

$$ {\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{final}}=\mathrm{aggregate}\ \max\ \mathrm{of}\ \mathrm{y}\kern0.5em {\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{i}}}\mathrm{I}\left({\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{i}}=\mathrm{y}\right) $$

A434293_1_En_4_Fig6_HTML

Figure 4-6.

Bagging

Let’s compare the performance of a stand-alone decision tree model and a bagging decision tree model of 100 trees. See Listing 4-9.

# Bagged Decision Trees for Classification

from sklearn.ensemble import BaggingClassifier

from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

X = df.ix[:,:8].values # independent variables

y = df['class'].values # dependent variables

#Normalize

X = StandardScaler().fit_transform(X)

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=2017)

kfold = cross_validation.StratifiedKFold(y=y_train, n_folds=5, random_state=2017)

num_trees = 100

# Decision Tree with 5 fold cross validation

clf_DT = DecisionTreeClassifier(random_state=2017).fit(X_train,y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_DT, X_train,y_train, cv=kfold)

print "Decision Tree (stand alone) - Train : ", results.mean()

print "Decision Tree (stand alone) - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_DT.predict(X_test), y_test)

# Using Bagging Lets build 100 decision tree models and average/majority vote prediction

clf_DT_Bag = BaggingClassifier(base_estimator=clf_DT, n_estimators=num_trees, random_state=2017).fit(X_train,y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_DT_Bag, X_train, y_train, cv=kfold)

print "\nDecision Tree (Bagging) - Train : ", results.mean()

print "Decision Tree (Bagging) - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_DT_Bag.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

Decision Tree (stand alone) - Train : 0.701983077737

Decision Tree (stand alone) - Test : 0.753246753247

Decision Tree (Bagging) - Train : 0.747461660497

Decision Tree (Bagging) - Test : 0.818181818182

Listing 4-9.

Stand-alone decision tree vs. bagging

Feature Importance

The decision tree model has an attribute to show important features that are based on the gini or entropy information gain. See Listing 4-10.

feature_importance = clf_DT.feature_importances_

# make importances relative to max importance

feature_importance = 100.0 * (feature_importance / feature_importance.max())

sorted_idx = np.argsort(feature_importance)

pos = np.arange(sorted_idx.shape[0]) + .5

plt.subplot(1, 2, 2)

plt.barh(pos, feature_importance[sorted_idx], align='center')

plt.yticks(pos, df.columns[sorted_idx])

plt.xlabel('Relative Importance')

plt.title('Variable Importance')

plt.show()

#----output----

Listing 4-10.

Decision tree feature importance function

A434293_1_En_4_Figc_HTML

RandomForest

A subset of observations and a subset of variables are randomly picked to build multiple independent tree-based models. The trees are more un-correlated as only a subset of variables are used during the split of the tree, rather than greedily choosing the best split point in the construction of the tree. See Listing 4-11.

from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier

num_trees = 100

clf_RF = RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=num_trees).fit(X_train, y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_RF, X_train, y_train, cv=kfold)

print "\nRandom Forest (Bagging) - Train : ", results.mean()

print "Random Forest (Bagging) - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_RF.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

Random Forest - Train : 0.758857747224

Random Forest - Test : 0.798701298701

Listing 4-11.

RandomForest classifier

Extremely Randomized Trees (ExtraTree)

This algorithm is an effort to introduce more randomness to the bagging process. Tree splits are chosen completely at random from the range of values in the sample at each split, which allows us to reduce the variance of the model further – however, at the cost of a slight increase in bias. See Listing 4-12.

from sklearn.ensemble import ExtraTreesClassifier

num_trees = 100

clf_ET = ExtraTreesClassifier(n_estimators=num_trees).fit(X_train, y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_ET, X_train, y_train, cv=kfold)

print "\nExtraTree - Train : ", results.mean()

print "ExtraTree - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_ET.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

ExtraTree - Train : 0.747408778424

ExtraTree - Test : 0.811688311688

Listing 4-12.

Extremely randomized trees (ExtraTree)

How Does the Decision Boundary Look?

Let’s perform PCA and consider only the first two principal components for easy plotting. The model building code would remain the same as above except that after normalization and before splitting the data to train and test, we will need to add the line below. See Listing 4-13.

# PCA

X = PCA(n_components=2).fit_transform(X)

Once we have run the model succesfully we can use the below code to draw decision boundaries for stand alone vs different bagging models.

def plot_decision_regions(X, y, classifier):

h = .02 # step size in the mesh

# setup marker generator and color map

markers = ('s', 'x', 'o', '^', 'v')

colors = ('red', 'blue', 'lightgreen', 'gray', 'cyan')

cmap = ListedColormap(colors[:len(np.unique(y))])

# plot the decision surface

x1_min, x1_max = X[:, 0].min() - 1, X[:, 0].max() + 1

x2_min, x2_max = X[:, 1].min() - 1, X[:, 1].max() + 1

xx1, xx2 = np.meshgrid(np.arange(x1_min, x1_max, h),

np.arange(x2_min, x2_max, h))

Z = classifier.predict(np.array([xx1.ravel(), xx2.ravel()]).T)

Z = Z.reshape(xx1.shape)

plt.contourf(xx1, xx2, Z, alpha=0.4, cmap=cmap)

plt.xlim(xx1.min(), xx1.max())

plt.ylim(xx2.min(), xx2.max())

for idx, cl in enumerate(np.unique(y)):

plt.scatter(x=X[y == cl, 0], y=X[y == cl, 1],

alpha=0.8, c=cmap(idx),

marker=markers[idx], label=cl)

# Plot the decision boundary

plt.figure(figsize=(10,6))

plt.subplot(221)

plot_decision_regions(X, y, clf_DT)

plt.title('Decision Tree (Stand alone)')

plt.xlabel('PCA1')

plt.ylabel('PCA2')

plt.subplot(222)

plot_decision_regions(X, y, clf_DT_Bag)

plt.title('Decision Tree (Bagging - 100 trees)')

plt.xlabel('PCA1')

plt.ylabel('PCA2')

plt.legend(loc='best')

plt.subplot(223)

plot_decision_regions(X, y, clf_RF)

plt.title('RandomForest Tree (100 trees)')

plt.xlabel('PCA1')

plt.ylabel('PCA2')

plt.legend(loc='best')

plt.subplot(224)

plot_decision_regions(X, y, clf_ET)

plt.title('Extream Random Tree (100 trees)')

plt.xlabel('PCA1')

plt.ylabel('PCA2')

plt.legend(loc='best')

plt.tight_layout()

#----output----

Decision Tree (stand alone) - Train : 0.595875198308

Decision Tree (stand alone) - Test : 0.616883116883

Decision Tree (Bagging) - Train : 0.646298254892

Decision Tree (Bagging) - Test : 0.714285714286

Random Forest - Train : 0.665917503966

Random Forest - Test : 0.707792207792

ExtraTree - Train : 0.635034373347

ExtraTree - Test : 0.707792207792

Listing 4-13.

Plot the decision boundaries

A434293_1_En_4_Figd_HTML

Bagging – Essential Tuning Parameters

n_estimators: This is the number of trees, the larger the better. Note that beyond a certain point the results will not improve significantly.

max_features: This is the random subset of features to be used for splitting node, the lower the better to reduce variance (but increases bias). Ideally, for a regression problem it should be equal to n_features (total number of features) and for classification square root of n_features.

n_jobs: Number of cores to be used for parallel construction of trees. If set to -1, all available cores in the system are used, or you can specify the number.

Boosting

Freud and Schapire in 1995 introduced the concept of boosting with the well-known AdaBoost algorithm (adaptive boosting). The core concept of boosting is that rather than an independent individual hypothesis, combining hypotheses in a sequential order increases the accuracy. Essentially, boosting algorithms convert the weak learners into strong learners. Boosting algorithms are well designed to address the bias problems.

At a high level the AdaBoosting process can be divided into three steps. See Figure 4-7.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig7_HTML

Figure 4-7.

AdaBoosting

· Assign uniform weights for all data points W0(x) = 1 / N, where N is the total number of training data points.

· At each iteration fit a classifier ym(xn) to the training data and update weights to minimize the weighted error function.

The weight is calculated as $$ {\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{n}}^{\left(\mathrm{m}+1\right)} = {\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{n}}^{\left(\mathrm{m}\right)} \exp\ \left\{{\propto}_{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}}\ \left({\mathrm{x}}_{\mathrm{n}}\right)\ \ne\ {\mathrm{t}}_{\mathrm{n}}\right\} $$.

The hypothesis weight or the loss function is given by $$ {\propto}_{\mathrm{m}}=\frac{1}{2} \log\ \left\{\ \frac{1 - {\in}_{\mathrm{m}}}{\in_{\mathrm{m}}}\ \right\} $$ , and the term rate is given by $$ {\in}_{\mathrm{m}}=\kern0.5em \frac{{\displaystyle {\sum}_{\mathrm{n}=1}^{\mathrm{N}}}{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{n}}^{\left(\mathrm{m}\right)}\ \mathrm{I}\ \left({\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}}\left({\mathrm{x}}_{\mathrm{n}}\right)\ne\ {\mathrm{t}}_{\mathrm{n}}\right)}{{\displaystyle {\sum}_{\mathrm{n}=1}^{\mathrm{N}}}{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{n}}^{\left(\mathrm{m}\right)}} $$, where $$ \left({\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}}\left({\mathrm{x}}_{\mathrm{n}}\right)\ne\ {\mathrm{t}}_{\mathrm{n}}\right)\ \mathrm{has}\ \mathrm{values}\ \frac{0}{1}\ \mathrm{i}.\mathrm{e}.,\ 0\ \mathrm{i}\mathrm{f}\ \left({\mathrm{x}}_{\mathrm{n}}\right)\ \mathrm{correctly}\ \mathrm{classified}\ \mathrm{else}\ 1 $$

· The final model is given by $$ {\mathrm{Y}}_{\mathrm{m}}=\mathrm{sign}\left({\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{m}=1}^{\mathrm{M}}}{\propto}_{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)\right) $$

Example Illustration for AdaBoost

Let’s consider a training data with two class labels of 10 data points. Assume, initially all the data points will have equal weights given by, for example, 1/10 as shown in Figure 4-8 below.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig8_HTML

Figure 4-8.

Sample dataset with 10 data points

Boosting Iteration 1

Notice in Figure 4-9 that three points of positive class are misclassified by the first simple classification model, so they will be assigned higher weights. The error term and loss function (learning rate) is calcuated as 0.30 and 0.42 respectively. The data points P3, P4, and P5 will get higher weight (0.15) due to misclassification, whereas other data points will retain the original weight (0.1).

A434293_1_En_4_Fig9_HTML

Figure 4-9.

Ym1 the first classification or hypothesis

Boosting Iteration 2

Let’s fit another classification model as shown in Figure 4-10 below and notice that three data points of negative class are misclassified. The data points P6, P7, and P8 are misclassified. Hence these will be assigned higher weights of 0.17 as calculated, whereas the remaining data point’s weights will remain the same as they are correctly classified.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig10_HTML

Figure 4-10.

Ym2 the second classification or hypothesis

Boosting Iteration 3

The third classification model has misclassified a toal of three data points, that is, two positive class P1, P2, and one negative class P9. So these misclassified data points will be assigned a new higher weight of 0.19 as calculated and the remaining data points will retain their earlier weights. See Figure 4-11.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig11_HTML

Figure 4-11.

Ym3 the third classification or hypothesis

Final Model

Now as per the AdaBoost algorithm, let’s combine the weak classification models as shown in Figure 4-12 below. Notice that the final model combined model will have a minimum error term and maximum learning rate leading to a higher degree of accuracy.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig12_HTML

Figure 4-12.

AdaBoost algorithm to combine weak classifiers

Let’s pick weak predictors from the Pima diabetic dataset and compare the performance of a stand-alone decision tree model vs. AdaBoost with 100 boosting rounds on the decision tree model. See Listing 4-14.

# Bagged Decision Trees for Classification

from sklearn.ensemble import AdaBoostClassifier

from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

# Let's use some week features to build the tree

X = df[['age','serum_insulin']] # independent variables

y = df['class'].values # dependent variables

#Normalize

X = StandardScaler().fit_transform(X)

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=2017)

kfold = cross_validation.StratifiedKFold(y=y_train, n_folds=5, random_state=2017)

num_trees = 100

# Dection Tree with 5 fold cross validation

# lets restrict max_depth to 1 to have more impure leaves

clf_DT = DecisionTreeClassifier(max_depth=1, random_state=2017).fit(X_train,y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_DT, X_train,y_train, cv=kfold)

print "Decision Tree (stand alone) - Train : ", results.mean()

print "Decision Tree (stand alone) - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_DT.predict(X_test), y_test)

# Using Adaptive Boosting of 100 iteration

clf_DT_Boost = AdaBoostClassifier(base_estimator=clf_DT, n_estimators=num_trees, learning_rate=0.1, random_state=2017).fit(X_train,y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_DT_Boost, X_train, y_train, cv=kfold)

print "\nDecision Tree (AdaBoosting) - Train : ", results.mean()

print "Decision Tree (AdaBoosting) - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_DT_Boost.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

Decision Tree (stand alone) - Train : 0.635113696457

Decision Tree (stand alone) - Test : 0.649350649351

Decision Tree (AdaBoosting) - Train : 0.688709677419

Decision Tree (AdaBoosting) - Test : 0.707792207792

Notice that in this case AdaBoost algorithm has given an average rise of 9% in accuracy score between train / test dataset compared to the stanalone decision tree model.

Listing 4-14.

Stand-alone decision tree vs. adaboost

Gradient Boosting

Due to the stage-wise addictivity, the loss function can be represented in a form suitable for optimization. This gave birth to a class of generalized boosting algorithms known as generalized boosting algorithm (GBM). Gradient boosting is an example implementation of GBM and it can work with different loss functions such as regression, classification, risk modeling, etc. As the name suggests it is a boosting algorithm that identifies shortcomings of a weak learner by gradients (AdaBoost uses high-weight data points), hence the name Gradient Boosting. See Listing 4-15.

· Iteratively fit a classifier ym(xn) to the training data. The initial model will be with a constant value $$ {\mathrm{y}}_0\left(\mathrm{x}\right)= \arg \min \updelta {\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{i}=1}^{\mathrm{n}}}\mathrm{L}\left({\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}},\ \updelta \right) $$

· Calculate the loss (i.e., the predicted value vs. actual value) for each model fit iteration gm(x)or compute the negative gradient, and use it to fit a new base learner function hm(x), and find the best gradient decent step-size $$ {\updelta}_{\mathrm{m}}= \arg \min \updelta {\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{i}=1}^{\mathrm{n}}}\mathrm{L}\left({\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}},\ {\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}-1}\left(\mathrm{x}\right) + \updelta\ {\mathrm{h}}_{\mathrm{m}}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)\ \right) $$

· Update the function estimate $$ {\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}}\left(\mathrm{x}\right) = {\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{m}-1}\left(\mathrm{x}\right)+\updelta\ {\mathrm{h}}_{\mathrm{m}}\left(\mathrm{x}\right) $$ and output ym(x)

from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingClassifier

# Using Gradient Boosting of 100 iterations

clf_GBT = GradientBoostingClassifier(n_estimators=num_trees, learning_rate=0.1, random_state=2017).fit(X_train, y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_GBT, X_train, y_train, cv=kfold)

print "\nGradient Boosting - CV Train : %.2f" % results.mean()

print "Gradient Boosting - Train : %.2f" % metrics.accuracy_score(clf_GBT.predict(X_train), y_train)

print "Gradient Boosting - Test : %.2f" % metrics.accuracy_score(clf_GBT.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

Gradient Boosting - CV Train : 0.70

Gradient Boosting - Train : 0.81

Gradient Boosting - Test : 0.66

Listing 4-15.

Gradient boosting classifier

Let’s look at the digit classification to illustrate how the model performance improves with each iteration.

from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingClassifier

df= pd.read_csv('Data/digit.csv')

X = df.ix[:,1:17].values

y = df['lettr'].values

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=2017)

kfold = cross_validation.StratifiedKFold(y=y_train, n_folds=5, random_state=2017)

num_trees = 10

clf_GBT = GradientBoostingClassifier(n_estimators=num_trees, learning_rate=0.1, max_depth=3, random_state=2017).fit(X_train, y_train)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_GBT, X_train, y_train, cv=kfold)

print "\nGradient Boosting - Train : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_GBT.predict(X_train), y_train)

print "Gradient Boosting - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(clf_GBT.predict(X_test), y_test)

# Let's predict for the letter 'T' and understand how the prediction accuracy changes in each boosting iteration

X_valid= (2,8,3,5,1,8,13,0,6,6,10,8,0,8,0,8)

print "Predicted letter: ", clf_GBT.predict(X_valid)

# Staged prediction will give the predicted probability for each boosting iteration

stage_preds = list(clf_GBT.staged_predict_proba(X_valid))

final_preds = clf_GBT.predict_proba(X_valid)

# Plot

x = range(1,27)

label = np.unique(df['lettr'])

plt.figure(figsize=(10,3))

plt.subplot(131)

plt.bar(x, stage_preds[0][0], align='center')

plt.xticks(x, label)

plt.xlabel('Label')

plt.ylabel('Prediction Probability')

plt.title('Round One')

plt.autoscale()

plt.subplot(132)

plt.bar(x, stage_preds[5][0],align='center')

plt.xticks(x, label)

plt.xlabel('Label')

plt.ylabel('Prediction Probability')

plt.title('Round Five')

plt.autoscale()

plt.subplot(133)

plt.bar(x, stage_preds[9][0],align='center')

plt.xticks(x, label)

plt.autoscale()

plt.xlabel('Label')

plt.ylabel('Prediction Probability')

plt.title('Round Ten')

plt.tight_layout()

plt.show()

#----output----

Gradient Boosting - Train : 0.7525625

Gradient Boosting - Test : 0.7305

Predicted letter: 'T'

A434293_1_En_4_Fige_HTML

Gradient boosting corrects the erroneous boosting iteration’s negative impact in subsequent iterations. Notice that in the first iteration the predicted probability for letter ‘T’ is 0.25 and it gradually increased to 0.76 by the 10th iteration, whereas the proability percentage for other letters have decreased over each round.

Boosting – Essential Tuning Parameters

Model complexity and over-fitting can be controlled by using correct values for two categories of parameters.

1. 1.

Tree structure

n_estimators: This is the number of weak learners to be built.

max_depth: Maximum depth of the individual estimators. The best value depends on the interaction of the input variables.

min_samples_leaf: This will be helpful to ensure sufficient number of samples result in leaf.

subsample: The fraction of sample to be used for fitting individual models (default=1). Typically .8 (80%) is used to introduce random selection of samples, which, in turn, increases the robustness against over-fitting.

2. 2.

Regularization parameter

learning_rate: this controls the magnitude of change in estimators. Lower learning rate is better, which requires higher n_estimators (that is the trade-off).

Xgboost (eXtreme Gradient Boosting)

In March 2014, Tianqui Chen built xgboost in C++ as part of the Distributed (Deep) Machine Learning Community, and it has an interface for Python. It is an extended, more regularized version of a gradient boosting algorithm. This is one of the most well-performing large-scale, scalable machine learning algorithms that has been playing a major role in winning solutions of Kaggle (forum for predictive modeling and analytics competition) data science competition.

XGBoost objective function obj(ϴ) = $$ {\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{i}}^{\mathrm{n}}}\mathrm{l}\left({\mathrm{y}}_{\mathrm{i}} - {\hat{\mathrm{y}}}_{\mathrm{i}}\right) + {\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{k}=1}^{\mathrm{K}}}\Omega \left({\mathrm{f}}_{\mathrm{k}}\right) $$

Regularization term is given by

A434293_1_En_4_Figf_HTML

The gradient descent technique is used for optimizing the objective function, and more mathematics about the algorithms can be found at the following site: http://xgboost.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

Some of the key advantages of the xgboost algorithm are these:

· It implements parallel processing.

· It has a built-in standard to handle missing values, which means user can specify a particular value different than other observations (such as -1 or -999) and pass it as a parameter.

· It will split the tree up to a maximum depth unlike Gradient Boosting where it stops splitting node on encounter of a negative loss in the split.

XGboost has bundle of parameters, and at a high level we can group them into three categories. Let’s look at the most important within these categories.

1. 1.

General Parameters

1. a.

nthread – Number of parallel threads; if not given a value all cores will be used.

2. b.

Booster – This is the type of model to be run with gbtree (tree-based model) being the default. ‘gblinear’ to be used for linear models

2. 2.

Boosting Parameters

1. a.

eta – This is the learning rate or step size shrinkage to prevent over-fitting; default is 0.3 and it can range between 0 to 1

2. b.

max_depth – Maximum depth of tree with default being 6.

3. c.

min_child_weight – Minimum sum of weights of all observations required in child. Start with 1/square root of event rate

4. d.

colsample_bytree – Fraction of columns to be randomly sampled for each tree with default value of 1.

5. e.

Subsample –Fraction of observations to be randomly sampled for each tree with default of value of 1. Lowering this value makes algorithm conservative to avoid over-fitting.

6. f.

lambda - L2 regularization term on weights with default value of 1.

7. g.

alpha - L1 regularization term on weight.

3. 3.

Task Parameters

1. a.

objective – This defines the loss function to be minimized with default value ‘reg:linear’. For binary classification it should be ‘binary:logistic’ and for multiclass ‘multi:softprob’ to get the probability value and ‘multi:softmax’ to get predicted class. For multiclass num_class (number of unique classes) to be specified.

2. b.

eval_metric – Metric to be use for validating model performance.

sklearn has a wrapper for xgboost (XGBClassifier). Let’s continue with the diabetic’s dataset and build a model using the weak learner. See Listing 4-16.

import xgboost as xgb

from xgboost.sklearn import XGBClassifier

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

# Let's use some weak features as predictors

predictors = ['age','serum_insulin']

target = 'class'

# Most common preprocessing step include label encoding and missing value treatment

from sklearn import preprocessing

for f in df.columns:

if df[f].dtype=='object':

lbl = preprocessing.LabelEncoder()

lbl.fit(list(df[f].values))

df[f] = lbl.transform(list(df[f].values))

df.fillna((-999), inplace=True) # missing value treatment

# Let's use some week features to build the tree

X = df[['age','serum_insulin']] # independent variables

y = df['class'].values # dependent variables

#Normalize

X = StandardScaler().fit_transform(X)

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=2017)

num_rounds = 100

clf_XGB = XGBClassifier(n_estimators = num_rounds,

objective= 'binary:logistic',

seed=2017)

# use early_stopping_rounds to stop the cv when there is no score imporovement

clf_XGB.fit(X_train,y_train, early_stopping_rounds=20, eval_set=[(X_test, y_test)], verbose=False)

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf_XGB, X_train,y_train, cv=kfold)

print "\nxgBoost - CV Train : %.2f" % results.mean()

print "xgBoost - Train : %.2f" % metrics.accuracy_score(clf_XGB.predict(X_train), y_train)

print "xgBoost - Test : %.2f" % metrics.accuracy_score(clf_XGB.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

Listing 4-16.

xgboost classifer using sklearn wrapper

Now let’s also look at how to build a model using xgboost native interface. DMatrix the internal data structure of xgboost for input data. It is good practice to convert a large dataset to DMatrix object to save preprocessing time. See Listing 4-17.

xgtrain = xgb.DMatrix(X_train, label=y_train, missing=-999)

xgtest = xgb.DMatrix(X_test, label=y_test, missing=-999)

# set xgboost params

param = {'max_depth': 3, # the maximum depth of each tree

'objective': 'binary:logistic'}

clf_xgb_cv = xgb.cv(param, xgtrain, num_rounds,

stratified=True,

nfold=5,

early_stopping_rounds=20,

seed=2017)

print ("Optimal number of trees/estimators is %i" % clf_xgb_cv.shape[0])

watchlist = [(xgtest,'test'), (xgtrain,'train')]

clf_xgb = xgb.train(param, xgtrain,clf_xgb_cv.shape[0], watchlist)

# predict function will produce the probability

# so we'll use 0.5 cutoff to convert probability to class label

y_train_pred = (clf_xgb.predict(xgtrain, ntree_limit=clf_xgb.best_iteration) > 0.5).astype(int)

y_test_pred = (clf_xgb.predict(xgtest, ntree_limit=clf_xgb.best_iteration) > 0.5).astype(int)

print "XGB - Train : %.2f" % metrics.accuracy_score(y_train_pred, y_train)

print "XGB - Test : %.2f" % metrics.accuracy_score(y_test_pred, y_test)

#----output----

Optimal number of trees (estimators) is 7

[0] test-error:0.344156 train-error:0.299674

[1] test-error:0.324675 train-error:0.273616

[2] test-error:0.272727 train-error:0.281759

[3] test-error:0.266234 train-error:0.278502

[4] test-error:0.266234 train-error:0.273616

[5] test-error:0.311688 train-error:0.254072

[6] test-error:0.318182 train-error:0.254072

XGB - Train : 0.75

XGB - Test : 0.69

Listing 4-17.

xgboost using it’s native python package code

Ensemble Voting – Machine Learning’s Biggest Heroes United

A434293_1_En_4_Fig13_HTML

Figure 4-13.

Ensemble: ML's biggest heroes united

A voting classifier enables us to combine the predictions through majority voting from multiple machine learning algorithms of different types, unlike Bagging/Boosting where similar types of multiple classifiers are used for majority voting.

First you can create multiple stand-alone models from your training dataset. Then a voting classifier can be used to wrap your models and average the predictions of the sub-models when asked to make predictions for new data. The predictions of the sub-models can be weighted, but specifying the weights for classifiers manually or even heuristically is difficult. More advanced methods can learn how to best weigh the predictions from sub-models, but this is called stacking (stacked aggregation) and is currently not provided in scikit-learn.

Let’s build individual models on the Pima diabetes dataset and try the voting classifier to combine model results to compare the change in accuracy. See Listing 4-18.

import pandas as pd

import numpy as np

# set seed for reproducability

np.random.seed(2017)

import statsmodels.api as sm

from sklearn import metrics

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier

from sklearn.svm import SVC

from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier

from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier

from sklearn.ensemble import AdaBoostClassifier

from sklearn.ensemble import BaggingClassifier

from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingClassifier

# currently its available as part of mlxtend and not sklearn

from mlxtend.classifier import EnsembleVoteClassifier

from sklearn import cross_validation

from sklearn import metrics

from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

X = df.ix[:,:8] # independent variables

y = df['class'] # dependent variables

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.3, random_state=2017)

LR = LogisticRegression(random_state=2017)

RF = RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators = 100, random_state=2017)

SVM = SVC(random_state=0, probability=True)

KNC = KNeighborsClassifier()

DTC = DecisionTreeClassifier()

ABC = AdaBoostClassifier(n_estimators = 100)

BC = BaggingClassifier(n_estimators = 100)

GBC = GradientBoostingClassifier(n_estimators = 100)

clfs = []

print('5-fold cross validation:\n')

for clf, label in zip([LR, RF, SVM, KNC, DTC, ABC, BC, GBC],

['Logistic Regression',

'Random Forest',

'Support Vector Machine',

'KNeighbors',

'Decision Tree',

'Ada Boost',

'Bagging',

'Gradient Boosting']):

scores = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf, X_train, y_train, cv=5, scoring='accuracy')

print("Train CV Accuracy: %0.2f (+/- %0.2f) [%s]" % (scores.mean(), scores.std(), label))

md = clf.fit(X, y)

clfs.append(md)

print("Test Accuracy: %0.2f " % (metrics.accuracy_score(clf.predict(X_test), y_test)))

#----output----

5-fold cross validation:

Train CV Accuracy: 0.76 (+/- 0.03) [Logistic Regression]

Test Accuracy: 0.79

Train CV Accuracy: 0.74 (+/- 0.03) [Random Forest]

Test Accuracy: 1.00

Train CV Accuracy: 0.65 (+/- 0.00) [Support Vector Machine]

Test Accuracy: 1.00

Train CV Accuracy: 0.70 (+/- 0.05) [KNeighbors]

Test Accuracy: 0.84

Train CV Accuracy: 0.69 (+/- 0.02) [Decision Tree]

Test Accuracy: 1.00

Train CV Accuracy: 0.73 (+/- 0.04) [Ada Boost]

Test Accuracy: 0.83

Train CV Accuracy: 0.75 (+/- 0.04) [Bagging]

Test Accuracy: 1.00

Train CV Accuracy: 0.75 (+/- 0.03) [Gradient Boosting]

Test Accuracy: 0.92

Listing 4-18.

Ensemble model

From the above benchmarking we see that ‘Logistic Regression’, ‘Random Forest’, ‘Bagging’, and Ada/Gradient Boosting algorithms are giving better accuracy compared to other models. Let’s combine non-similar models such as Logistic regression (base model), Random Forest (bagging model), and gradient boosting (boosting model) to create a robust generalized model.

Hard Voting vs. Soft Voting

Majority voting is also known as hard voting. The argmax of the sum of predicted probabilities is known as soft voting. Parameter ‘weights’ can be used to assign specific weights to classifiers. The predicted class probabilities for each classifier are multiplied by the classifier weight and averaged. Then the final class label is derived from the highest average probability class label.

Assume we assign equal weight of 1 to all classifiers (see Table 4-1). Based on soft voting, the predicted class label is 1, as it has the highest average probability. See also Listing 4-19.

Table 4-1.

Soft voting

A434293_1_En_4_Figg_HTML

Note

Some classifiers of scikit-learn do not support the predict_proba method.

# Ensemble Voting

clfs = []

print('5-fold cross validation:\n')

ECH = EnsembleVoteClassifier(clfs=[LR, RF, GBC], voting='hard')

ECS = EnsembleVoteClassifier(clfs=[LR, RF, GBC], voting='soft', weights=[1,1,1])

for clf, label in zip([ECH, ECS],

['Ensemble Hard Voting',

'Ensemble Soft Voting']):

scores = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf, X_train, y_train, cv=5, scoring='accuracy')

print("Train CV Accuracy: %0.2f (+/- %0.2f) [%s]" % (scores.mean(), scores.std(), label))

md = clf.fit(X, y)

clfs.append(md)

print("Test Accuracy: %0.2f " % (metrics.accuracy_score(clf.predict(X_test), y_test)))

#----output----

5-fold cross validation:

Train CV Accuracy: 0.75 (+/- 0.02) [Ensemble Hard Voting]

Test Accuracy: 0.93

Train CV Accuracy: 0.76 (+/- 0.02) [Ensemble Soft Voting]

Test Accuracy: 0.95

Listing 4-19.

Ensemble voting model

Stacking

Wolpert David H presented (in 1992) the concept of stacked generalization, most commonly known as ‘stacking’ in his publication with the journal Neural Networks. In stacking initially, you train multiple base models of different types on training/test datasets. It is ideal to mix models that work differently (kNN, bagging, boosting, etc.) so that it can learn some part of the problem. At level 1, use the predicted values from base models as features and train a model that is known as a meta-model, thus combining the learning of an individual model will result in improved accuracy. This is a simple level 1 stacking, and similarly you can stack multiple levels of different type of models. See Figure 4-14.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig14_HTML

Figure 4-14.

Simple Level 2 stacking model

Let’s apply the stacking concept discussed above on the diabetes dataset and compare the accuracy of base vs. meta-model. See Listing 4-20.

# Classifiers

from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier

from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingClassifier

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier

np.random.seed(2017) # seed to shuffle the train set

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

X = df.ix[:,0:8] # independent variables

y = df['class'].values # dependent variables

#Normalize

X = StandardScaler().fit_transform(X)

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=2017)

kfold = cross_validation.StratifiedKFold(y=y_train, n_folds=5, random_state=2017)

num_trees = 10

verbose = True # to print the progress

clfs = [KNeighborsClassifier(),

RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=num_trees, random_state=2017),

GradientBoostingClassifier(n_estimators=num_trees, random_state=2017)]

#Creating train and test sets for blending

dataset_blend_train = np.zeros((X_train.shape[0], len(clfs)))

dataset_blend_test = np.zeros((X_test.shape[0], len(clfs)))

print('5-fold cross validation:\n')

for i, clf in enumerate(clfs):

scores = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf, X_train, y_train, cv=kfold, scoring='accuracy')

print("##### Base Model %0.0f #####" % i)

print("Train CV Accuracy: %0.2f (+/- %0.2f)" % (scores.mean(), scores.std()))

clf.fit(X_train, y_train)

print("Train Accuracy: %0.2f " % (metrics.accuracy_score(clf.predict(X_train), y_train)))

dataset_blend_train[:,i] = clf.predict_proba(X_train)[:, 1]

dataset_blend_test[:,i] = clf.predict_proba(X_test)[:, 1]

print("Test Accuracy: %0.2f " % (metrics.accuracy_score(clf.predict(X_test), y_test)))

print "##### Meta Model #####"

clf = LogisticRegression()

scores = cross_validation.cross_val_score(clf, dataset_blend_train, y_train, cv=kfold, scoring='accuracy')

clf.fit(dataset_blend_train, y_train)

print("Train CV Accuracy: %0.2f (+/- %0.2f)" % (scores.mean(), scores.std()))

print("Train Accuracy: %0.2f " % (metrics.accuracy_score(clf.predict(dataset_blend_train), y_train)))

print("Test Accuracy: %0.2f " % (metrics.accuracy_score(clf.predict(dataset_blend_test), y_test)))

#----output----

5-fold cross validation:

##### Base Model 0 #####

Train CV Accuracy: 0.72 (+/- 0.03)

Train Accuracy: 0.82

Test Accuracy: 0.78

##### Base Model 1 #####

Train CV Accuracy: 0.70 (+/- 0.05)

Train Accuracy: 0.98

Test Accuracy: 0.81

##### Base Model 2 #####

Train CV Accuracy: 0.75 (+/- 0.02)

Train Accuracy: 0.79

Test Accuracy: 0.82

##### Meta Model #####

Train CV Accuracy: 0.98 (+/- 0.02)

Train Accuracy: 0.98

Test Accuracy: 0.81

Listing 4-20.

Model stacking

Hyperparameter Tuning

One of the primary objectives and challenges in machine learning process is improving the performance score, based on data patterns and observed evidence. To achieve this objective, almost all machine learning algorithms have a specific set of parameters that needs to estimate from the dataset, which will maximize the performance score. Assume that these parameters are the knobs that you need to adjust to different values to find the optimal combination of parameters that give you the best model accuracy. The best way to choose good hyperparameter is through trial and error of all possible combinations of parameter values. Scikit-learn provides GridSearchCV and RandomSearchCV functions to facilitate automatic and reproducible approach for hyperparameter tuning. See Figure 4-15.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig15_HTML

Figure 4-15.

Hyperparameter Tuning

GridSearch

For a given model, you can define a set of parameter values that you would like to try. Then using the GridSearchCV function of scikit-learn, models are built for all possible combinations of a preset list of values of hyperparameter provided by you, and the best combination is chosen based on the cross-validation score. There are two disadvantages associated with GridSearchCV.

1. 1.

Computationally expensive: It is then obvious that with more parameter values the GridSearch will be computationally expensive. Consider an example where you have 5 parameters and assume that you would like to try 5 values for each parameters that will result in 5**5 = 3125 combinations; further multiply this with number of cross-validation folds being used, that is, if k-fold is 5 then 3125 * 5 = 15625 model fits.

2. 2.

Not perfect optimal but nearly optimal parameters: Grid Search will look at fixed points that you provide for the numerical parameters, hence there is a great chance of missing the optimal point that lies between the fixed points. For example, assume that you would like to try the fixed points for ‘n_estimators’: [100, 250, 500, 750, 1000] for a decision tree model and there is a chance that the optimal point might lie between the two fixed points; however GridSearch is not designed to search between fixed points.

Let’s try GridSearchCV for a RandomForest classifier on the Pima diabetes dataset to find the optimal parameter values. See Listing 4-21.

from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier

from sklearn.grid_search import GridSearchCV

seed = 2017

# read the data in

df = pd.read_csv("Data/Diabetes.csv")

X = df.ix[:,:8].values # independent variables

y = df['class'].values # dependent variables

#Normalize

X = StandardScaler().fit_transform(X)

# evaluate the model by splitting into train and test sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.3, random_state=seed)

kfold = cross_validation.StratifiedKFold(y=y_train, n_folds=5, random_state=seed)

num_trees = 100

clf_rf = RandomForestClassifier(random_state=seed).fit(X_train, y_train)

rf_params = {

'n_estimators': [100, 250, 500, 750, 1000],

'criterion': ['gini', 'entropy'],

'max_features': [None, 'auto', 'sqrt', 'log2'],

'max_depth': [1, 3, 5, 7, 9]

}

# setting verbose = 10 will print the progress for every 10 task completion

grid = GridSearchCV(clf_rf, rf_params, scoring='roc_auc', cv=kfold, verbose=10, n_jobs=-1)

grid.fit(X_train, y_train)

print 'Best Parameters: ', grid.best_params_

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(grid.best_estimator_, X_train,y_train, cv=kfold)

print "Accuracy - Train CV: ", results.mean()

print "Accuracy - Train : ", metrics.accuracy_score(grid.best_estimator_.predict(X_train), y_train)

print "Accuracy - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(grid.best_estimator_.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

Fitting 5 folds for each of 200 candidates, totalling 1000 fits

Best Parameters: {'max_features': 'log2', 'n_estimators': 500, 'criterion': 'entropy', 'max_depth': 5}

Accuracy - Train CV: 0.744790584978

Accuracy - Train : 0.862197392924

Accuracy - Test : 0.796536796537

Listing 4-21.

Grid search for hyperparameter tuning

RandomSearch

As the name suggests the RandomSearch algorithm tries random combinations of a range of values of given parameters. The numerical parameters can be specified as a range (unlike fixed values in GridSearch). You can control the number of iterations of random searches that you would like to perform. It is known to find a very good combination in a lot less time compared to GridSearch; however you have to carefully choose the range for parameters and the number of random search iteration as it can miss the best parameter combination with lesser iterations or smaller ranges.

Let’s try the RandomSearchCV for same combination that we tried for GridSearch and compare the time / accuracy. See Listing 4-22.

from sklearn.model_selection import RandomizedSearchCV

from scipy.stats import randint as sp_randint

# specify parameters and distributions to sample from

param_dist = {'n_estimators':sp_randint(100,1000),

'criterion': ['gini', 'entropy'],

'max_features': [None, 'auto', 'sqrt', 'log2'],

'max_depth': [None, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9]

}

# run randomized search

n_iter_search = 20

random_search = RandomizedSearchCV(clf_rf, param_distributions=param_dist, cv=kfold,

n_iter=n_iter_search, verbose=10, n_jobs=-1, random_state=seed)

random_search.fit(X_train, y_train)

# report(random_search.cv_results_)

print 'Best Parameters: ', random_search.best_params_

results = cross_validation.cross_val_score(random_search.best_estimator_, X_train,y_train, cv=kfold)

print "Accuracy - Train CV: ", results.mean()

print "Accuracy - Train : ", metrics.accuracy_score(random_search.best_estimator_.predict(X_train), y_train)

print "Accuracy - Test : ", metrics.accuracy_score(random_search.best_estimator_.predict(X_test), y_test)

#----output----

Fitting 5 folds for each of 20 candidates, totalling 100 fits

Best Parameters: {'max_features': None, 'n_estimators': 694, 'criterion': 'entropy', 'max_depth': 3}

Accuracy - Train CV: 0.75424022153

Accuracy - Train : 0.780260707635

Accuracy - Test : 0.805194805195

Listing 4-22.

Random search for hyperparameter tuning

Notice that in this case, with RandomSearchCV we were able to achieve comparable accuracy results with 100 fits to that of a GridSearchCV’s 1000 fit.

Figure 4-16 is a sample illustration of how grid search vs. random search results differ (it’s not the actual representation) between two parameters. Assume that the optimal area for max_depth lies between 3 and 5 (blue shade) and for n_estimators it lies between 500 and 700 (amber shade). The ideal optimal value for combined parameters would lie where the individual regions intersect. Both methods will be able to find a nearly optimal parameter and not necessarily the perfect optimal point.

A434293_1_En_4_Fig16_HTML

Figure 4-16.

Grid Search vs. Random Search

Endnotes

In this step, we have learned various common issues that can hinder the model accuracy such as not choosing the optimal probability cutoff point for class creation, variance, and bias. We also briefly looked at different model tuning techniques practiced such as bagging, boosting, ensemble voting, and grid search/random search for hyperparameter tuning. To be concise we only looked at the most important aspect for each of the topics discussed above to get you started. However there are more options for each of the algorithms for tuning and each of these techniques have been evolving at a fast phase. So I encourage you to keep an eye on their respective officially hosted webpage and github repository. See Table 4-2.

Table 4-2.

Additional resources

Name

Web Page

Github Repository

Scikit-learn

http://scikit-learn.org/stable/#

https://github.com/scikit-learn/scikit-learn

Xgboost

https://xgboost.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

https://github.com/dmlc/xgboost

We have reached the end of step 4, which means you’re half way through your machine learning journey. In the next chapter we’ll learn text mining techniques and fundamentals of the recommender system.

© Manohar Swamynathan 2017

Manohar SwamynathanMastering Machine Learning with Python in Six Steps10.1007/978-1-4842-2866-1_5