Building Microservices (2015)

Chapter 2. The Evolutionary Architect

As we have seen so far, microservices give us a lot of choice, and accordingly a lot of decisions to make. For example, how many different technologies should we use, should we let different teams use different programming idioms, and should we split or merge a service? How do we go about making these decisions? With the faster pace of change, and the more fluid environment that these architectures allow, the role of the architect also has to change. In this chapter, I’ll take a fairly opinionated view of what the role of an architect is, and hopefully launch one final assault on the ivory tower.

Inaccurate Comparisons

You keep using that word. I do not think it means what you think it means.

Inigo Montoya, from The Princess Bride

Architects have an important job. They are in charge of making sure we have a joined-up technical vision, one that should help us deliver the system our customers need. In some places, they may only have to work with one team, in which case the role of the architect and technical lead is often the same. In others, they may be defining the vision for an entire program of work, coordinating with multiple teams across the world, or perhaps even an entire organization. At whatever level they operate, the role is a tricky one to pin down, and despite it often being the obvious career progression for developers in enterprise organizations, it is also a role that gets more criticism than virtually any other. More than any other role, architects can have a direct impact on the quality of the systems built, on the working conditions of their colleagues, and on their organization’s ability to respond to change, and yet we so frequently seem to get this role wrong. Why is that?

Our industry is a young one. This is something we seem to forget, and yet we have only been creating programs that run on what we recognize as computers for around 70 years. Therefore, we are constantly looking to other professions in an attempt to explain what we do. We aren’t medical doctors or engineers, but nor are we plumbers or electricians. Instead, we fall into some middle ground, which makes it hard for society to understand us, or for us to understand where we fit.

So we borrow from other professions. We call ourselves software “engineers,” or “architects.” But we aren’t, are we? Architects and engineers have a rigor and discipline we could only dream of, and their importance in society is well understood. I remember talking to a friend of mine, the day before he became a qualified architect. “Tomorrow,” he said, “if I give you advice down at the pub about how to build something and it’s wrong, I get held to account. I could get sued, as in the eyes of the law I am now a qualified architect and I should be held responsible if I get it wrong.” The importance of these jobs to society means that there are required qualifications people have to meet. In the UK, for example, a minimum of seven years study is required before you can be called an architect. But these jobs are also based on a body of knowledge going back thousands of years. And us? Not quite. Which is also why I view most forms of IT certification as worthless, as we know so little about what good looks like.

Part of us wants recognition, so we borrow names from other professions that already have the recognition we as an industry crave. But this can be doubly harmful. First, it implies we know what we are doing, when we plainly don’t. I wouldn’t say that buildings and bridges never fall down, but they fall down much less than the number of times our programs will crash, making comparisons with engineers quite unfair. Second, the analogies break down very quickly when given even a cursory glance. To turn things around, if bridge building were like programming, halfway through we’d find out that the far bank was now 50 meters farther out, that it was actually mud rather than granite, and that rather than building a footbridge we were instead building a road bridge. Our software isn’t constrained by the same physical rules that real architects or engineers have to deal with, and what we create is designed to flex and adapt and evolve with user requirements.

Perhaps the term architect has done the most harm. The idea of someone who draws up detailed plans for others to interpret, and expects this to be carried out. The balance of part artist, part engineer, overseeing the creation of what is normally a singular vision, with all other viewpoints being subservient, except for the occasional objection from the structural engineer regarding the laws of physics. In our industry, this view of the architect leads to some terrible practices. Diagram after diagram, page after page of documentation, created with a view to inform the construction of the perfect system, without taking into account the fundamentally unknowable future. Utterly devoid of any understanding as to how hard it will be to implement, or whether or not it will actually work, let alone having any ability to change as we learn more.

When we compare ourselves to engineers or architects, we are in danger of doing everyone a disservice. Unfortunately, we are stuck with the word architect for now. So the best we can do is to redefine what it means in our context.

An Evolutionary Vision for the Architect

Our requirements shift more rapidly than they do for people who design and build buildings—as do the tools and techniques at our disposal. The things we create are not fixed points in time. Once launched into production, our software will continue to evolve as the way it is used changes. For most things we create, we have to accept that once the software gets into the hands of our customers we will have to react and adapt, rather than it being a never-changing artifact. Thus, our architects need to shift their thinking away from creating the perfect end product, and instead focus on helping create a framework in which the right systems can emerge, and continue to grow as we learn more.

Although I have spent much of the chapter so far warning you off comparing ourselves too much to other professions, there is one analogy that I like when it comes to the role of the IT architect and that I think better encapsulates what we want this role to be. Erik Doernenburg first shared with me the idea that we should think of our role more as town planners than architects for the built environment. The role of the town planner should be familiar to any of you who have played SimCity before. A town planner’s role is to look at a multitude of sources of information, and then attempt to optimize the layout of a city to best suit the needs of the citizens today, taking into account future use. The way he influences how the city evolves, though, is interesting. He does not say, “build this specific building there”; instead, he zones a city. So as in SimCity, you might designate part of your city as an industrial zone, and another part as a residential zone. It is then up to other people to decide what exact buildings get created, but there are restrictions: if you want to build a factory, it will need to be in an industrial zone. Rather than worrying too much about what happens in one zone, the town planner will instead spend far more time working out how people and utilities move from one zone to another.

More than one person has likened a city to a living creature. The city changes over time. It shifts and evolves as its occupants use it in different ways, or as external forces shape it. The town planner does his best to anticipate these changes, but accepts that trying to exert direct control over all aspects of what happens is futile.

The comparison with software should be obvious. As our users use our software, we need to react and change. We cannot foresee everything that will happen, and so rather than plan for any eventuality, we should plan to allow for change by avoiding the urge to overspecify every last thing. Our city—the system—needs to be a good, happy place for everyone who uses it. One thing that people often forget is that our system doesn’t just accommodate users; it also accommodates developers and operations people who also have to work there, and who have the job of making sure it can change as required. To borrow a term from Frank Buschmann, architects have a duty to ensure that the system is habitable for developers too.

A town planner, just like an architect, also needs to know when his plan isn’t being followed. As he is less prescriptive, the number of times he needs to get involved to correct direction should be minimal, but if someone decides to build a sewage plant in a residential area, he needs to be able to shut it down.

So our architects as town planners need to set direction in broad strokes, and only get involved in being highly specific about implementation detail in limited cases. They need to ensure that the system is fit for purpose now, but also a platform for the future. And they need to ensure that it is a system that makes users and developers equally happy. This sounds like a pretty tall order. Where do we start?


So, to continue the metaphor of the architect as town planner for a moment, what are our zones? These are our service boundaries, or perhaps coarse-grained groups of services. As architects, we need to worry much less about what happens inside the zone than what happens between the zones. That means we need to spend time thinking about how our services talk to each other, or ensuring that we can properly monitor the overall health of our system. How involved we get inside the zone will vary somewhat. Many organizations have adopted microservices in order to maximize for autonomy of teams, something we’ll expand on in Chapter 10. If you are in such an organization, you will rely more on the team to make the right local decision.

But between the zones, or the boxes on our traditional architecture diagram, we need to be careful; getting things wrong here leads to all sorts of problems and can be very hard to correct.

Within each service, you may be OK with the team who owns that zone picking a different technology stack or data store. Other concerns may kick in here, of course. Your inclination to let teams pick the right tool for the job may be tempered by the fact that it becomes harder to hire people or move them between teams if you have 10 different technology stacks to support. Similarly, if each team picks a completely different data store, you may find yourself lacking enough experience to run any of them at scale. Netflix, for example, has mostly standardized on Cassandra as a data-store technology. Although it may not be the best fit for all of its cases, Netflix feels that the value gained by building tooling and expertise around Cassandra is more important than having to support and operate at scale multiple other platforms that may be a better fit for certain tasks. Netflix is an extreme example, where scale is likely the strongest overriding factor, but you get the idea.

Between services is where things can get messy, however. If one service decides to expose REST over HTTP, another makes use of protocol buffers, and a third uses Java RMI, then integration can become a nightmare as consuming services have to understand and support multiple styles of interchange. This is why I try to stick to the guideline that we should “be worried about what happens between the boxes, and be liberal in what happens inside.”


If we are to ensure that the systems we create are habitable for our developers, then our architects need to understand the impact of their decisions. At the very least, this means spending time with the team, and ideally it should mean that these developers actually spend time coding with the team too. For those of you who practice pair programming, it becomes a simple matter for an architect to join a team for a short period as one member of the pair. Ideally, you should work on normal stories, to really understand what normal work is like. I cannot emphasize how important it is for the architect to actually sit with the team! This is significantly more effective than having a call or just looking at her code.

As for how often you should do this, that depends greatly on the size of the team(s) you are working with. But the key is that it should be a routine activity. If you are working with four teams, for example, spending half a day with each team every four weeks ensures you build an awareness and improved communications with the teams you are working with.

A Principled Approach

Rules are for the obedience of fools and the guidance of wise men.

Generally attributed to Douglas Bader

Making decisions in system design is all about trade-offs, and microservice architectures give us lots of trade-offs to make! When picking a datastore, do we pick a platform that we have less experience with, but that gives us better scaling? Is it OK for us to have two different technology stacks in our system? What about three? Some decisions can be made completely on the spot with information available to us, and these are the easiest to make. But what about those decisions that might have to be made on incomplete information?

Framing here can help, and a great way to help frame our decision making is to define a set of principles and practices that guide it, based on goals that we are trying to achieve. Let’s look at each in turn.

Strategic Goals

The role of the architect is already daunting enough, so luckily we usually don’t have to also define strategic goals! Strategic goals should speak to where your company is going, and how it sees itself as best making its customers happy. These will be high-level goals, and may not include technology at all. They could be defined at a company level or a division level. They might be things like “Expand into Southeast Asia to unlock new markets,” or “Let the customer achieve as much as possible using self-service.” The key is that this is where your organization is headed, so you need to make sure the technology is aligned to it.

If you’re the person defining the company’s technical vision, this may mean you’ll need to spend more time with the nontechnical parts of your organization (or the business, as they are often called). What is the driving vision for the business? And how does it change?


Principles are rules you have made in order to align what you are doing to some larger goal, and will sometimes change. For example, if one of your strategic goals as an organization is to decrease the time to market for new features, you may define a principle that says that delivery teams have full control over the lifecycle of their software to ship whenever they are ready, independently of any other team. If another goal is that your organization is moving to aggressively grow its offering in other countries, you may decide to implement a principle that the entire system must be portable to allow for it to be deployed locally in order to respect sovereignty of data.

You probably don’t want loads of these. Fewer than 10 is a good number—small enough that people can remember them, or to fit on small posters. The more principles you have, the greater the chance that they overlap or contradict each other.

Heroku’s 12 Factors are a set of design principles structured around the goal of helping you create applications that work well on the Heroku platform. They also may well make sense in other contexts. Some of the principles are actually constraints based on behaviors your application needs to exhibit in order to work on Heroku. A constraint is really something that is very hard (or virtually impossible) to change, whereas principles are things we decide to choose. You may decide to explicitly call out those things that are principles versus those that are constraints, to help indicate those things you really can’t change. Personally, I think there can be some value in keeping them in the same list to encourage challenging constraints every now and then and see if they really are immovable!


Our practices are how we ensure our principles are being carried out. They are a set of detailed, practical guidance for performing tasks. They will often be technology-specific, and should be low level enough that any developer can understand them. Practices could include coding guidelines, the fact that all log data needs to be captured centrally, or that HTTP/REST is the standard integration style. Due to their technical nature, practices will often change more often than principles.

As with principles, sometimes practices reflect constraints in your organization. For example, if you support only CentOS, this will need to be reflected in your practices.

Practices should underpin our principles. A principle stating that delivery teams control the full lifecycle of their systems may mean you have a practice stating that all services are deployed into isolated AWS accounts, providing self-service management of the resources and isolation from other teams.

Combining Principles and Practices

One person’s principles are another’s practices. You might decide to call the use of HTTP/REST a principle rather than a practice, for example. And that would be fine. The key point is that there is value in having overarching ideas that guide how the system evolves, and in having enough detail so that people know how to implement those ideas. For a small enough group, perhaps a single team, combining principles and practices might be OK. However, for larger organizations, where the technology and working practices may differ, you may want a different set of practices in different places, as long as they both map to a common set of principles. A .NET team, for example, might have one set of practices, and a Java team another, with a set of practices common to both. The principles, though, could be the same for both.

A Real-World Example

My colleague Evan Bottcher developed the diagram shown in Figure 2-1 in the course of working with one of our clients. The figure shows the interplay of goals, principles, and practices in a very clear format. Over the course of a couple years, the practices on the far right will change fairly regularly, whereas the principles remain fairly static. A diagram such as this can be printed nicely on a single sheet of paper and shared, and each idea is simple enough for the average developer to remember. There is, of course, more detail behind each point here, but being able to articulate this in summary form is very useful.

A real-world example of principles and practices

Figure 2-1. A real-world example of principles and practices

It makes sense to have documentation supporting some of these items. In the main, though, I like the idea of having example code that you can look at, inspect, and run, which embodies these ideas. Even better, we can create tooling that does the right thing out of the box. We’ll discuss that in more depth momentarily.

The Required Standard

When you’re working through your practices and thinking about the trade-offs you need to make, one of the core balances to find is how much variability to allow in your system. One of the key ways to identify what should be constant from service to service is to define what a well-behaved, good service looks like. What is a “good citizen” service in your system? What capabilities does it need to have to ensure that your system is manageable and that one bad service doesn’t bring down the whole system? And, as with people, what a good citizen is in one context does not reflect what it looks like somewhere else. Nonetheless, there are some common characteristics of well-behaved services that I think are fairly important to observe. These are the few key areas where allowing too much divergence can result in a pretty torrid time. As Ben Christensen from Netflix puts it, when we think about the bigger picture, “it needs to be a cohesive system made of many small parts with autonomous lifecycles but all coming together.” So we need to find the balance between optimizing for autonomy of the individual microservice without losing sight of the bigger picture. Defining clear attributes that each service should have is one way of being clear as to where that balance sits.


It is essential that we are able to draw up coherent, cross-service views of our system health. This has to be a system-wide view, not a service-specific view. As we’ll discuss in Chapter 8, knowing the health of an individual service is useful, but often only when you’re trying to diagnose a wider problem or understand a larger trend. To make this as easy as possible, I would suggest ensuring that all services emit health and general monitoring-related metrics in the same way.

You might choose to adopt a push mechanism, where each service needs to push this data into a central location. For your metrics this might be Graphite, and for your health it might be Nagios. Or you might decide to use polling systems that scrape data from the nodes themselves. But whatever you pick, try to keep it standardized. Make the technology inside the box opaque, and don’t require that your monitoring systems change in order to support it. Logging falls into the same category here: we need it in one place.


Picking a small number of defined interface technologies helps integrate new consumers. Having one standard is a good number. Two isn’t too bad, either. Having 20 different styles of integration is bad. This isn’t just about picking the technology and the protocol. If you pick HTTP/REST, for example, will you use verbs or nouns? How will you handle pagination of resources? How will you handle versioning of end points?

Architectural Safety

We cannot afford for one badly behaved service to ruin the party for everyone. We have to ensure that our services shield themselves accordingly from unhealthy, downstream calls. The more services we have that do not properly handle the potential failure of downstream calls, the more fragile our systems will be. This means you will probably want to mandate as a minimum that each downstream service gets its own connection pool, and you may even go as far as to say that each also uses a circuit breaker. This will get covered in more depth when we discuss microservices at scale in Chapter 11.

Playing by the rules is important when it comes to response codes, too. If your circuit breakers rely on HTTP codes, and one service decides to send back 2XX codes for errors, or confuses 4XX codes with 5XX codes, then these safety measures can fall apart. Similar concerns would apply even if you’re not using HTTP; knowing the difference between a request that was OK and processed correctly, a request that was bad and thus prevented the service from doing anything with it, and a request that might be OK but we can’t tell because the server was down is key to ensuring we can fail fast and track down issues. If our services play fast and loose with these rules, we end up with a more vulnerable system.

Governance Through Code

Getting together and agreeing on how things can be done is a good idea. But spending time making sure people are following these guidelines is less fun, as is placing a burden on developers to implement all these standard things you expect each service to do. I am a great believer in making it easy to do the right thing. Two techniques I have seen work well here are using exemplars and providing service templates.


Written documentation is good, and useful. I clearly see the value; after all, I’ve written this book. But developers also like code, and code they can run and explore. If you have a set of standards or best practices you would like to encourage, then having exemplars that you can point people to is useful. The idea is that people can’t go far wrong just by imitating some of the better parts of your system.

Ideally, these should be real-world services you have that get things right, rather than isolated services that are just implemented to be perfect examples. By ensuring your exemplars are actually being used, you ensure that all the principles you have actually make sense.

Tailored Service Template

Wouldn’t it be great if you could make it really easy for all developers to follow most of the guidelines you have with very little work? What if, out of the box, the developers had most of the code in place to implement the core attributes that each service needs?

Dropwizard and Karyon are two open source, JVM-based microcontainers. They work in similar ways, pulling together a set of libraries to provide features like health checking, serving HTTP, or exposing metrics. So, out of the box, you have a service complete with an embedded servlet container that can be launched from the command line. This is a great way to get going, but why stop there? While you’re at it, why not take something like a Dropwizard or Karyon, and add more features so that it becomes compliant for your context?

For example, you might want to mandate the use of circuit breakers. In that case, you might integrate a circuit breaker library like Hystrix. Or you might have a practice that all your metrics need to be sent to a central Graphite server, so perhaps pull in an open source library like Dropwizard’s Metrics and configure it so that, out of the box, response times and error rates are pushed automatically to a known location.

By tailoring such a service template for your own set of development practices, you ensure that teams can get going faster, and also that developers have to go out of their way to make their services badly behaved.

Of course, if you embraced multiple disparate technology stacks, you’d need a matching service template for each. This may be a way you subtly constrain language choices in your teams, though. If the in-house service template supports only Java, then people may be discouraged from picking alternative stacks if they have to do lots more work themselves. Netflix, for example, is especially concerned with aspects like fault tolerance, to ensure that the outage of one part of its system cannot take everything down. To handle this, a large amount of work has been done to ensure that there are client libraries on the JVM to provide teams with the tools they need to keep their services well behaved. Anyone introducing a new technology stack would mean having to reproduce all this effort. The main concern for Netflix is less about the duplicated effort, and more about the fact that it is so easy to get this wrong. The risk of a service getting newly implemented fault tolerance wrong is high if it could impact more of the system. Netflix mitigates this by using sidecar services, which communicate locally with a JVM that is using the appropriate libraries.

You do have to be careful that creating the service template doesn’t become the job of a central tools or architecture team who dictates how things should be done, albeit via code. Defining the practices you use should be a collective activity, so ideally your team(s) should take joint responsibility for updating this template (an internal open source approach works well here).

I have also seen many a team’s morale and productivity destroyed by having a mandated framework thrust upon them. In a drive to improve code reuse, more and more work is placed into a centralized framework until it becomes an overwhelming monstrosity. If you decide to use a tailored service template, think very carefully about what its job is. Ideally, its use should be purely optional, but if you are going to be more forceful in its adoption you need to understand that ease of use for the developers has to be a prime guiding force.

Also be aware of the perils of shared code. In our desire to create reusable code, we can introduce sources of coupling between services. At least one organization I spoke to is so worried about this that it actually copies its service template code manually into each service. This means that an upgrade to the core service template takes longer to be applied across its system, but this is less concerning to it than the danger of coupling. Other teams I have spoken to have simply treated the service template as a shared binary dependency, although they have to be very diligent in not letting the tendency for DRY (don’t repeat yourself) result in an overly coupled system! This is a nuanced topic, so we’ll explore it in more detail in Chapter 4.

Technical Debt

We are often put in situations where we cannot follow through to the letter on our technical vision. Often, we need to make a choice to cut a few corners to get some urgent features out. This is just one more trade-off that we’ll find ourselves having to make. Our technical vision exists for a reason. If we deviate from this reason, it might have a short-term benefit but a long-term cost. A concept that helps us understand this trade-off is technical debt. When we accrue technical debt, just like debt in the real world it has an ongoing cost, and is something we want to pay down.

Sometimes technical debt isn’t just something we cause by taking shortcuts. What happens if our vision for the system changes, but not all of our system matches? In this situation, too, we have created new sources of technical debt.

The architect’s job is to look at the bigger picture, and understand this balance. Having some view as to the level of debt, and where to get involved, is important. Depending on your organization, you might be able to provide gentle guidance, but have the teams themselves decide how to track and pay down the debt. For other organizations, you may need to be more structured, perhaps maintaining a debt log that is reviewed regularly.

Exception Handling

So our principles and practices guide how our systems should be built. But what happens when our system deviates from this? Sometimes we make a decision that is just an exception to the rule. In these cases, it might be worth capturing such a decision in a log somewhere for future reference. If enough exceptions are found, it may eventually make sense to change the principle or practice to reflect a new understanding of the world. For example, we might have a practice that states that we will always use MySQL for data storage. But then we see compelling reasons to use Cassandra for highly scalable storage, at which point we change our practice to say, “Use MySQL for most storage requirements, unless you expect large growth in volumes, in which case use Cassandra.”

It’s probably worth reiterating, though, that every organization is different. I’ve worked with some companies where the development teams have a high degree of trust and autonomy, and there the principles are lightweight (and the need for overt exception handling is greatly reduced if not eliminated). In more structured organizations in which developers have less freedom, tracking exceptions may be vital to ensure that the rules put in place properly reflect the challenges people are facing. With all that said, I am a fan of microservices as a way of optimizing for autonomy of teams, giving them as much freedom as possible to solve the problem at hand. If you are working in an organization that places lots of restrictions on how developers can do their work, then microservices may not be for you.

Governance and Leading from the Center

Part of what architects need to handle is governance. What do I mean by governance? It turns out the Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) has a pretty good definition:

Governance ensures that enterprise objectives are achieved by evaluating stakeholder needs, conditions and options; setting direction through prioritisation and decision making; and monitoring performance, compliance and progress against agreed-on direction and objectives.


Governance can apply to multiple things in the forum of IT. We want to focus on the aspect of technical governance, something I feel is the job of the architect. If one of the architect’s jobs is ensuring there is a technical vision, then governance is about ensuring what we are building matches this vision, and evolving the vision if needed.

Architects are responsible for a lot of things. They need to ensure there is a set of principles that can guide development, and that these principles match the organization’s strategy. They need to make sure as well that these principles don’t require working practices that make developers miserable. They need to keep up to date with new technology, and know when to make the right trade-offs. This is an awful lot of responsibility. All that, and they also need to carry people with them—that is, to ensure that the colleagues they are working with understand the decisions being made and are brought in to carry them out. Oh, and as we’ve already mentioned: they need to spend some time with the teams to understand the impact of their decisions, and perhaps even code too.

A tall order? Absolutely. But I am firmly of the opinion that they shouldn’t do this alone. A properly functioning governance group can work together to share the work and shape the vision.

Normally, governance is a group activity. It could be an informal chat with a small enough team, or a more structured regular meeting with formal group membership for a larger scope. This is where I think the principles we covered earlier should be discussed and changed as required. This group needs to be led by a technologist, and to consist predominantly of people who are executing the work being governed. This group should also be responsible for tracking and managing technical risks.

A model I greatly favor is having the architect chair the group, but having the bulk of the group drawn from the technologists of each delivery team—the leads of each team at a minimum. The architect is responsible for making sure the group works, but the group as a whole is responsible for governance. This shares the load, and ensures that there is a higher level of buy-in. It also ensures that information flows freely from the teams into the group, and as a result, the decision making is much more sensible and informed.

Sometimes, the group may make decisions with which the architect disagrees. At this point, what is the architect to do? Having been in this position before, I can tell you this is one of the most challenging situations to face. Often, I take the approach that I should go with the group decision. I take the view that I’ve done my best to convince people, but ultimately I wasn’t convincing enough. The group is often much wiser than the individual, and I’ve been proven wrong more than once! And imagine how disempowering it can be for a group to have been given space to come up with a decision, and then ultimately be ignored. But sometimes I have overruled the group. But why, and when? How do you pick the lines?

Think about teaching children to ride a bike. You can’t ride it for them. You watch them wobble, but if you stepped in every time it looked like they might fall off, then they’d never learn, and in any case they fall off far less than you think they will! But if you see them about to veer into traffic, or into a nearby duck pond, then you have to step in. Likewise, as an architect, you need to have a firm grasp of when, figuratively, your team is steering into a duck pond. You also need to be aware that even if you know you are right and overrule the team, this can undermine your position and also make the team feel that they don’t have a say. Sometimes the right thing is to go along with a decision you don’t agree with. Knowing when to do this and when not to is tough, but is sometimes vital.

Building a Team

Being the main point person responsible for the technical vision of your system and ensuring that you’re executing on this vision isn’t just about making technology decisions. It’s the people you work with who will be doing the work. Much of the role of the technical leader is about helping grow them—to help them understand the vision themselves—and also ensuring that they can be active participants in shaping and implementing the vision too.

Helping the people around you on their own career growth can take many forms, most of which are outside the scope of this book. There is one aspect, though, where a microservice architecture is especially relevant. With larger, monolithic systems, there are fewer opportunities for people to step up and own something. With microservices, on the other hand, we have multiple autonomous codebases that will have their own independent lifecycles. Helping people step up by having them take ownership of individual services before accepting more responsibility can be a great way to help them achieve their own career goals, and at the same time lightens the load on whoever is in charge!

I am a strong believer that great software comes from great people. If you worry only about the technology side of the equation, you’re missing way more than half of the picture.


To summarize this chapter, here are what I see as the core responsibilities of the evolutionary architect:


Ensure there is a clearly communicated technical vision for the system that will help your system meet the requirements of your customers and organization


Understand the impact of your decisions on your customers and colleagues


Engage with as many of your peers and colleagues as possible to help define, refine, and execute the vision


Make sure that the technical vision changes as your customers or organization requires it


Find the right balance between standardizing and enabling autonomy for your teams


Ensure that the system being implemented fits the technical vision

The evolutionary architect is one who understands that pulling off this feat is a constant balancing act. Forces are always pushing you one way or another, and understanding where to push back or where to go with the flow is often something that comes only with experience. But the worst reaction to all these forces that push us toward change is to become more rigid or fixed in our thinking.

While much of the advice in this chapter can apply to any systems architect, microservices give us many more decisions to make. Therefore, being better able to balance all of these trade-offs is essential.

In the next chapter, we’ll take some of our newfound awareness of the architect’s role with us as we start thinking about how to find the right boundaries for our microservices.